Bibliography

Bibliography of literature by and about Eberhard Arnold

This bibliography aims to be reasonably comprehensive for the sake of aiding further research on Eberhard Arnold. Entries are included at the discretion of the editors, and their appearance here does not mean that Plough or the Bruderhof endorses their content. Some entries include content descriptions and details of alternative editions that will display when clicking on them or using your browser's “find” function.

Contents

1. Published Primary Sources
         • Literature Written by Arnold
         • Period Literature
                  ○ Book Reviews
         • Memoirs
2. Scholarly Literature
         • Books and Theses
                  ○ In-Depth
                  ○ Brief Discussion and Comments
         • Chapters, Articles, and Conference Papers
                  ○ In-Depth
                  ○ Brief Discussion and Comments
         • Book Reviews
         • Encyclopedia Articles
3. Journals, Databases, and Resource Collections
4. Forewords, Introductions, and Afterwords
5. Popular-Level Literature and Multimedia


Published Primary Sources

Literature Written by Arnold

The main purpose of this section is to clarify the relationship between published texts and their archival counterparts. Eventually, most of the sources behind the publications listed here will be included in our digital archive of Eberhard Arnold’s talks and writings. For inquiries regarding archival resources not directly associated with Arnold, researchers should contact the Bruderhof Historical Archive (BHA) at contact@bruderhof.com.

Arnold, Eberhard. A Testimony to Church Community: The Life and Writings of Eberhard Arnold. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

A collection of excerpts from Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of church community, all of which will be made available eventually in our digital archive. Also includes a short biography by Emmy Arnold, and memories of others who knew him.

Earlier print edition: 2011. Originally an issue of: The Plough: Towards the Coming Order (new series) 1:3 (Autumn 1953). German: Der Pflug: Zeitschrift der Bruderhöfe [The Plough: Magazine of the Bruderhofs] (new series) 1:3 (1953). First book edition published as: Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church-Community from His Life and Writings. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1964. Second edition: 1973, with hyphen omitted from subtitle. [archive.org].

Arnold, Eberhard. Children's Education in Community: The Basis of Bruderhof Education. Edited and translated by Winifred Hildel and Miriam Mathis. Walden, NY: Plough, 2017.

Excerpts from Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of children and education.

First edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976. Concurrently published in German as: Gemeinsames Leben und Kindererziehung: Grundlagen der Bruderhoferziehung. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976.

Arnold, Eberhard. Else von Hollander: January 1932. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1973.

A collection of material by and for Else von Hollander, a founding member of the community and Emmy Arnold’s sister. She died in 1932. Material by Eberhard Arnold including in the book can be read in our digital archive: “Days Just Before and After the Death of Else von Hollander: January 8, 1932 at 6:30 in the Morning and January 13, 1932” (1–18); “Words by Eberhard Arnold: January 14, 1932” (19–31); “Eberhard Arnold’s Account of Else von Hollander’s Development and Family Background: January 17, 1932” (33–50); “From a Letter to the Hutterians: June 1932” (51–73); “Four Deaths in the Community 1920–1924: Spoken by Eberhard Arnold at the End of 1934” (75–85). Cf. the same entry below under period literature.

Arnold, Eberhard. Foundation and Orders of Sannerz and the Rhön Bruderhof. Section I, Introductory History: The Basis for Our Orders, 1920–1929. Rifton, NY: Plough: 1976. [archive.org].

A collection of primary sources illustrating the beliefs and foundations of the Bruderhof, originally written in 1929, in Arnold’s lifetime. A Section II was also printed in English with a slightly different title. It was not distributed: Arnold, Eberhard. Foundation and Orders of the Rhön Bruderhof. Section II, The Orders: Different Circles of Responsibility and the Services, 1929. Ulster Park, NY: Plough, 1991. The original, unpublished German can be read in our digital archive. It contains both of the sections that were printed in English.

Arnold, Eberhard. God and Anti-God. Translated by Bruce Sumner and Kathleen E. Hasenberg. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1939.

A translation of Arnold's 1925 article, “Gott Mammon” (God Mammon), available to read in our digital archive.

Arnold, Eberhard. God’s Revolution: Justice, Community, and the Coming Kingdom. Walden, NY: Plough, 2021. [Free download].

Excerpts of Arnold’s most uncompromising words relating to discipleship and the kingdom of God.

Originally: God’s Revolution: The Witness of Eberhard Arnold. Edited by the Hutterian Society of Brothers and John Howard Yoder. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist, 1984. [archive.org]. Concurrently published in German as: Die Revolution Gottes: Aus dem Lebenszeugnis der hutterischen Gemeinschaften [The Revolution of God: From the Life Witness of the Hutterite Communities]. Stuttgart: Radius-Verlag, 1984. New German edition: Die Revolution Gottes: Fundamente einer neuen Gesellschaft [The Revolution of God: Foundations for a New Society]. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2012. [Free download].

Arnold, Eberhard. Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel. 5 vols. Walden, New York: Plough, 2019–2021. [Free download].

Eberhard Arnold’s core theological text and life work, completed and published by others in the community in 1936, the year following his death. Eventually, all editions will be made available online. At present, only the untranslated, 1918 edition is in our digital archive. The German National Library has also digitized the 1936 edition (cf. citation below).

Originally published in one volume (note subtly different title): Innerland: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel (Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976). [archive.org]. Second edition: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1999. [archive.org]. Ebook of 1999 edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. An abridged version was published as: War: A Call to the Inner Land. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 1987. [archive.org]. The 1936 edition was first published in German as: Innenland: Ein Wegweiser in die Seele der Bibel und in den Kampf um die Wirklichkeit. Silum, Liechtenstein: Buchverlag des Almbruderhof, 1936.

Arnold, Eberhard. Leben im Licht: Über Gemeinschaft, Gerechtigkeit und Liebe [Life in the Light: On Community, Justice, and Love]. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

Published in Germany only, Leben im Licht collates a number of Arnold’s talks and writings, with brief introductions to each. The originals can be read in our digital archive: 1. Die Revolution Gottes; 2. Gegen Blut und Gewalt; 3. Fort von Kompromiss und Schatten; 4. Die bessere Gerechtigkeit; 5. Vom Kind und vom kindlichen Geist; 6. Verantwortung, Trieb und Liebe; 7. Warum wir in Gemeinschaft leben; 8. Vom Eigentum zur Gemeinschaft; 9. Gott Mammon und der lebendige Gott; 10. Der Einzelne und die Weltnot; 11. Der Jesus der vier Evangelien.

Arnold, Eberhard. Living Churches: The Essence of Their Life; Love to Christ and Love to the Brothers. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1973.

Volume 2 printed for internal Bruderhof use as: Living Churches: The Essence of Their Life. Volume 2, The Meaning and Power of Prayer Life. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1975. The original can be read in our digital archive. Cf. The Prayer God Answers below, by Arnold and Foster.

Arnold, Eberhard. Love and Marriage in the Spirit. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1965. [archive.org].

A collection of Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of love and marriage.

A collection of Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of love and marriage. The original texts can be read in our digital archive: 1. Love Divine and Human; 2. On Woman’s Calling; 3. The Nature of Woman and of Man; 4. Marriage and the State; 5. The Mystery of Unity; 6. Faith and Marriage; 7. Conscience and Responsibility (excerpt from Inner Land); 8. The Bond of the Spirit; 9. Responsibility, Desire, and Love (includes text from another document); 10. The Promise; 11. Engagement (the second part of the text comes from here); 12. The Three Grades of Marriage; 13. Marriage in Unity; 14. Marriage a Symbol; 15. What is God’s Love? 16. Love Redeemed; 17. Christ the Head.

Arnold, Eberhard. Salt and Light: Living the Sermon on the Mount. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014. [Free download].

A collection of talks and writings by Eberhard Arnold relating to themes in the Sermon on the Mount, covering the period between 1915 and 1935. The original documentary sources of each chapter are available to read in our digital archive (links provided according to title of each chapter in the fourth edition): 1. Not a New Law; 2. Becoming True Men and Women; 3. Salt and Light; 4. Happiness; 5. The Nature of the New Justice; 6. “But I Say to You…”; 7. Away from Compromise and Shadow; 8. Against Bloodshed and Violence; 9. The Better Righteousness; 10. God or Mammon; 11. The Fight against Mammon; 12. Mammon and the Living God; 13. The Decision; 14. Resistance by Surrender (a compilation of excerpts from Inner Land); 15. The Spirit of Life Overcomes; 16. Present Experience, Future Kingdom; 17. The Joyful News of the Kingdom. Two final chapters, published in the first three editions but omitted from the fourth, also have sources that can be viewed in our digital archive: God and the Future of Men; The Jesus of the Four Gospels.

The ebook cited above is based on the fourth print edition: Walden, NY: Plough, 1998. [archive.org]. First edition: Salt and Light: Talks and Writings on the Sermon on the Mount. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1967. [archive.org]. Second edition: 1977. Third edition: 1986. [archive.org]. The first three editions are the same in content but differ in front matter. The fourth edition provides a more contemporary text and alternative pagination. Printed in German as: Salz und Licht: Über die Bergpredigt. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1982. [archive.org].

Some excerpts from the 1967 edition are reprinted in: Haas, J. Craig, ed. Readings from Mennonite Writings: New and Old. Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1992.

Arnold, Eberhard. Sendbrief from the Alm Bruderhof to the Rhön Bruderhof. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974.

A scan of the German version of this book (with translation) can be viewed in our digital archive. The original document has not yet been made available.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Early Anabaptists. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1984. [archive.org].

Based on the shorthand transcription of a talk given by Arnold on November 10, 1935, which can be viewed in our digital archive. The published text is supplemented with notes added by the original translation team. See the introduction in all published versions. The notes are also included in the two-part series on our website: part 1 and part 2.

First published in English as: “On the History of the Baptizer Movement in Reformation Times.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 43:3 (1969): 213–233. First book edition: History of the Baptizers Movement. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1970.

Arnold, Eberhard, ed. The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

This book was first published as Die ersten Christen nach dem Tode der Apostel [The First Christians after the Death of the Apostles]. Quellen [Sources]. Volume 1. Sannerz and Leipzig: Eberhard Arnold Verlag, 1926. The version that can be viewed in our digital archive also contains mark-ups by Arnold that were used as the basis for the English translations.

First electronic edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. Arnold's introduction only: The Early Christians: After the Death of the Apostles. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1939. Full edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1970. [archive.org]. Second edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1972. Second edition reprint (?): The Early Christians: A Sourcebook on the Witness of the Early Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1979. Fourth edition: The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1998.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Hutterian Brothers: Four Centuries of Common Life and Work. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1940.

The original documents from 1931 are available to read in our digital archive. The English book has sometimes been mistakenly cited as: The Hutterite Brothers.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Individual and World Need. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

A translation of Arnold’s essay series: “Der Einzige und die Weltnot.”

Print: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. [archive.org]. Originally: Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1938.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Peace of God. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1940.

A translation of Inner Land, chapter seven, which has the same name. An English translation is available here. At present, only the untranslated, 1918 edition is in our digital archive. The German National Library has also digitized the 1936 edition.

Arnold, Eberhard. “The Spirit of the Risen Lord.” Mennonite Life 24:3 (July 1969): 142–143. [Free download].

The original text can be viewed in our digital archive.

Arnold, Eberhard. Why We Live in Community. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

The book consists in an English translation of Arnold’s essay of the same name, which can be viewed in our digital archive: first published in 1925, and then again in 1927. The book includes two talks by Thomas Merton.

First edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1967–1972 (multiple reprints). Second edition: 1976. Third edition: Farmington, PA: 1995. [archive.org]. Published in German as: Warum wir in Gemeinschaft leben. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. Second German edition: 1992.

Arnold, Eberhard and Emmy. Seeking for the Kingdom of God: Origins of the Bruderhof Communities. Edited by Heini and Annemarie Arnold. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. [archive.org].

A collection of texts illustrating the origins of the Bruderhof. The majority of the book consists of letters written between Eberhard and Emmy over their three-year engagement period, which will be made available eventually in our digital archive. Some commentary is provided for context.

Arnold, Eberhard and Emmy. Love Letters. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. [Free download].

A collection of letters between Eberhard and Arnold written throughout their three-year engagement period (1907–1909).

Arnold, Eberhard, Emmy Arnold, and Else von Hollander. Poems and Rhymed Prayers. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. [Free download].

A collection of Arnold’s poems, with historical notes provided throughout. The original poems and prayers have not yet been uploaded to our digital archive.

The first print version was longer and included poems by Emmy Arnold and Else von Hollander as well: Plough, 2003. [archive.org].

Arnold, Eberhard and Richard J. Foster. The Prayer God Answers. Translated by Eileen Robertshaw et al. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

An essay by Arnold on prayer, followed by a response from Richard Foster. The essay, “Die Übermacht des Gebetslebens” [The Superior Power of Prayer Life] can be viewed in our digital archive. It was first published in 1913 and revised again in 1929.

Concurrently published in a print edition. An earlier printing was made for inhouse Bruderhof use: Living Churches: The Essence of Their Life. Volume 2, The Meaning and Power of Prayer Life. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1975.

Arnold, Johann Christoph, ed. Eberhard Arnold: Writings Selected. Modern Spiritual Masters. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011.

A collection of Eberhard Arnold’s texts selected by his grandson, Johann Christoph Arnold, giving a broad picture of Eberhard’s theology and spirituality.

Originally: Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2000.

Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. [archive.org].

A collection of letters between Eberhard Arnold, the Bruderhof, Hutterites, and other Anabaptists. The volume includes introductory material, annotations, and appendixes. Material by Eberhard Arnold and letters addressed to him will eventually be published in the digital archive on this website.

Linse, Ulrich, ed. “Anarcho-religiöse Siedlung: Sannerz” [Anarcho-Religious Settlement: Sannerz]; “Evangelische Siedlung: Habertshof” [Protestant Settlement: Habertshof]. In Zurück, o Mensch, zur Mutter Erde: Landkommunen in Deutschland 1890–1933 [Back, O Man, to Mother Earth: Rural Communes in Germany, 1890–1933]. Edited by idem. 221–40; 241–67. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1983.

“‘Stimme des Geistes’” (225–26), “‘Erweckte Jugend’ der Nachkriegsjahre” (226), and “Schritte der Verwirklichung (Schlüchterner Pfingsttreffen 1920)” (227–28) are excerpted from: “Von Sannerz zum Bruderhof: Ein Überblick und ein Hinweis.” Die Wegwarte 3:8/9 (May/June 1927): 147–50. The author is unknown but most likely Arnold. “Christliche ‘Protestbewegung’” (226–27), “‘Entscheidende Wendung’ (Trennung zwischen Arnold und Neuwerk 1922)” (237–38), and “‘Der spezifische Auftrag des Sannerzer Gemeinschaftslebens” (239–40) are excerpted from EA 22/04. “Christlicher Anarchismus [b]” (228–29), “‘Klein-Kommunismus’ (1919–1922)” (248–49), “Rettung oder Schiffbruch? (1922) [b]” (254–55), “Der Abweg von 1922” (255), “Die Heimvolkshochschule [b]” (258), “Leitungsprinzip oder Bedarfsorientierung [b]” (259–60) “Sprengung des Kommunismus” (261–62), and “Vom Taschengeld zum Gehalt [b]” (266) are excerpted from EA 30/01. “Christlich-radikale Lebensgemeinschaft (1920)” (229–31) is excerpted from a letter to Hilde Hoppe, April 27, 1920 (no copy in BHA). “Geplanter Aufbau der Siedlung” (231) is excerpted from the letter to Max Zink, June 9, 1920. “Arbeitsethos [b]” (234) is excerpted from EA 21/06. “‘Fasse Mut!’ (Ermunterung Arnolds nach dem drohenden Auseinanderfall der Kommune 1922)” (236) is excerpted from the letter to Trude Dalgas, July 20, 1922. “Feuerlied” (240), a poem by Eberhard and Emmy Arnold, is reproduced in full.

Pfeiffer, Arnold, ed. “Eberhard Arnold und der Weg des Bruderhof-Lebens” [Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhof Way of Life]. In Religiöse Sozialisten [Religious Socialists]. Edited by Arnold Pfeiffer. 201–76. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Walter, 1976.

Contains three texts by Arnold, which can be read in our digital archive: “Weltrevolution und Welterlösung” [World Revolution and World Redemption]; “Familienverband und Siedlungsleben” [Extended Households and Communal Life]; and “Zum augenblicklichen Stand der Neuwerksache” [The Current State of the Neuwerk Movement]. A text from 1928, by Bruderhof member Karl Roland Keiderling, is also included, titled, “Vom Klassenkampf zum Geisteskampf” [From Class Struggle to Spiritual Struggle].

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Period Literature

Arnold died in November 1935. This section includes literature published during his lifetime and immediately afterward, the latter which includes obituaries and material concering the dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof in 1937. See also the journals and databases section below.

Althaus, Paul. Religiöser Sozialismus: Grundfragen der christlichen Sozialethik [Religious Socialism: Basic Questions in Christian Social Ethics]. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1921. [archive.org].

Some references to Arnold and the Neuwerk movement.

Arnold, Eberhard. Else von Hollander: January 1932. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1973.

A collection of material by and for Else von Hollander, a founding member of the community and Emmy Arnold’s sister. She died in 1932. In addition to text by Eberhard Arnold, the collection includes some of von Hollander’s poems, her death notice, and memories from three of the Arnold children, given just before the publication of this book. Cf. the same entry above under literature written by Arnold.

Bender, Harold S. “The New Hutterite Bruderhof in Germany.” Christian Monitor (Mennonite Publishing House, PA) 1 (1931): 18. [Free download (alternative pagination)].

Celebrated Anabaptist theologian and historian, Harold S. Bender, recalls his visit to the Rhön Bruderhof.

Blum, Emil. Der Habertshof: Werden und Gestalt einer Heimvolkshochschule [The Habertshof: The Development and Shape of a Heimvolkshochschule]. Kassel, Germany: Neuwerk, 1930.

Blum writes on the Habertshof settlement and its Heimvolkshochschule (a school for adult students, often in a rural area, that provides meals and accommodation over the duration of an educational program). After Arnold’s split with the Neuwerk movement in 1922, the Habertshof took up much of Neuwerk’s publishing work. Arnold and Neuwerk are mentioned on pp. 19–20. Arnold’s own marginal notes on this book will soon be made available to read in our digital archive. Cf. the entries in other sections on this page by Emil Blum.

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. London, 1933–1935. Edited by Hans Goedeking et al. Translated by Isabel Best and Douglas W. Scott. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works. Volume 13. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2007.

Contains correspondence between Bruderhof members, including Arnold, concerning the meeting between Arnold’s son Hardy and Dietrich Bonhoeffer. The letters are 92a, 114a, 114b, 115a, 115b, and 121a (pp. 133–34, 158–66, and 174).

The letters were not published in the original German edition: London: 1933–1935. Edited by Hans Goedeking et al. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke. Volume 13. Munich: Kaiser, 1994. They were first published in German as: “Bruderhof-Korrespondenz 1934.” In Victoria Barnett et al, ed. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Jahrbuch 2:2005/2006. 75–87. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlaghaus, 2005. The BHA holds five of the six original letters. The earliest letter, from Hardy to Bonhoeffer, only has one page and is missing the rest. It is held in the Nachlass Dietrich Bonhoeffer collection in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Berlin State Library).

Dugard, Donald R. “A Christian Community To-day.” Reconciliation: Looking Towards a Christian World 12:6 (1934): 160–161.

A brief summary of a lecture delivered by Hardy Arnold on the situation in Germany, followed by a description of the Bruderhof and its potential appeal for British Christians.

Foerster, Friedrich Wilhelm. Jugendseele, Jugendbewegung, Jugendziel [Youth Soul, Youth Movement, Youth Goal]. Zurich: Rotapfel, 1923. [archive.org].

Arnold mentioned throughout, but see especially, “Die protestantische Jugendbewegung” (The Protestant Youth Movement), pp. 234–51.

Hausrath, August. Jugendbewegung und Schule [The Youth Movement and Its Schools (?)]. Karlsruhe: G. Braunsch, 1923.

A critical overview of different schools of the German Youth Movement. Arnold is mentioned in connection with the Neuwerk movement on 28–29.

Hermann, Rudolf. Die Bergpredigt und die Religiös-Sozialen: Vorträge [The Sermon on the Mount and the Religious Socialists: Lectures]. Leipzig: A. Deichert, 1922.

This short book concludes with a philosophical and theological study of Sannerz, predominantly based on Arnold’s writings from the time (58–77).

Hershberger, Guy F. “To Keep Alive Our Scriptural Peace Testimony: A Call to Peace from the Cotswold Bruderhof.” The Youth’s Christian Companion (Scottdale, PA) 19:52 (December 1938): 414-c–414-d.

A brief summary of Bruderhof history and an appeal for support at the time. Hershberger is also critical of the German Mennonite to community’s exile from Germany: “It is a sad fact that when the Bruderhof was expelled from Germany some of the German Mennonites hastened to explain that they were not of the same faith as these persecuted Hutterites.”

Horsch, John. “Nonresistance under Difficulty.” Gospel Herald (Scottdale, PA) 28 (October 24, 1935): 650. [archive.org].

Report on Bruderhof difficulties under Nazism due to refusal to do military service.

Kindt, Werner, ed. Die deutsche Jugendbewegung 1920 bis 1933: Die bündische Zeit [The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933: The Bündische Period]. Düsseldorf: Diederich, 1974.

Contains a very large selection of primary texts relating to different groups in the German Youth Movement. Sources concerning the Neuwerk movement can be found on pp. 635–53, some of which mention Arnold. Arnold’s name occasionally also appears in sources concerning other groups. See pp. 272, 277, 600, 1499.

Some sources reprinted in: Dokumente evangelischer Jugendbünde: Wandlungen zwischen zwei Weltkriegen [Documents of the Protestant Youth Associations: Transformations between Two World Wars]. Edited by Udo Smidt. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk, 1975. See especially “Die Bewegung des Neuwerk” [The Neuwerk Movement] (177–197).

Klein, Thomas, ed. Die Lageberichte der Geheimen Staatspolizei über die Provinz Hessen-Nassau, 1933–1936 [The Situation Reports of the Gestapo on the Province of Hesse-Nassau, 1933–1936]. Vol. 1. A und B. Cologne: Böhlau, 1986.

A collection of Gestapo intelligence sources, with some on the Bruderhof movement.

Linse, Ulrich, ed. “Anarcho-religiöse Siedlung: Sannerz” [Anarcho-Religious Settlement: Sannerz]; “Evangelische Siedlung: Habertshof” [Protestant Settlement: Habertshof]. In Zurück, o Mensch, zur Mutter Erde: Landkommunen in Deutschland 1890–1933 [Back, O Man, to Mother Earth: Rural Communes in Germany, 1890–1933]. Edited by idem. 221–40; 241–67. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1983.

A collection of primary sources on the first Bruderhof (Sannerz) and the Habertshof, which Arnold was connected with in the early 1920s. Much of the material in the first chapter is written by Arnold. See the annotation to this same entry in the previous section.

Plough. Letters from Kathleen Hamilton (Now Hasenberg) to Her Mother, 1934–1938. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1992. [Free download].

A collection of letters by an English visitor to and later member of the Bruderhof, with frequent reference to Arnold and Bruderhof life.

Ragaz, Christine et al, ed. Leonhard Ragaz in seinen Briefen [Leonhard Ragaz in His Letters]. 3 vols. Zurich: EVZ, 1966; TVZ, 1982–1992.

See letters 301 and 332 (vol. 2, pp. 419–22; vol. 3, pp. 47–48). Helpful commentary is provided in the form of footnotes, as well as a comment in the introduction to vol. 2 (pp. 23–24).

“Sozialpädagogische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bruderhof e. V. in Veitsteinbach, Landkreis Fulda” [The Social-Pedagogical Work Community of the Bruderhof Registered Society in Veitsteinbach, Fulda District]. In Die Lageberichte der Geheimen Staatspolizei über die Provinz Hessen-Nassau: 1933–1936 [The Situation Reports of the Gestapo on the Province of Hesse-Nassau: 1933–1936]. 2 vols. Edited by Thomas Klein. 1:89–90. Cologne: Böhlau, 1986.

A brief Gestapo report on the Bruderhof from April 1934. It reads: “There has been a powerful life in the ‘Bruderhof’ in recent months. The community’s own school, which was closed at the time, is now located in Silum in the Principality of Liechtenstein. At the end of March, 7 brothers and sisters emigrated there; on the other hand, a number of new members have moved in, some of them from abroad. In two cases, Swiss nationals were found to be carrying communist literature at customs checks. The residence permits of these foreigners were denied. The ‘Bruderhof’ is under continuous surveillance. Police coercive measures of any kind are not necessary at present.”

In German: “In ‘Bruderhof’ herrscht in den letzten Monaten ein starkes Leben. Der eigene Schulbetrieb der Gemeinde, der s. Zt. geschlossen wurde, befindet sich jetzt in Silum im Fürstentum Liechtenstein. Ende März sind 7 Brüder und Schwestern der Bruderhofgemeinde nach dort ausgewandert, andererseits sind eine Anzahl neuer Mitglieder, z. T. auch aus dem Auslande, zugezogen. In zwei Fällen wurden bei schweizerischen Staatsangehörigen bei der Zollkontrolle kommunistische Schriften angehalten. Die Aufenthaltserlaubnis ist diesen Ausländern versagt worden. Der ‘Bruderhof’ wird fortlaufend überwacht. Polizeiliche Zwangsmaßnahmen irgendwelcher Art sind zur Zeit nicht erforderlich.”

The Bruderhof is also mentioned on p. 367 (n. 23) of the same volume, where Klein summarizes (or quotes?) a report from December 20, 1935, attending to the state of the Bruderhof not long after Arnold’s death. For some other official reports on the Bruderhof under Nazism, see Zehrer, Evangelische Freikirchen, below.

Wächter, Annemarie. Anni: Letters and Writings of Annemarie Wächter. Edited by Marianne Wright. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. [Free download].

A collection of letters and writings by Annemarie Wächter, who later joined the Bruderhof in the early 1930s. They trace her involvement in the Youth Movement, her friendship with Eberhard Arnold’s daughter, Emi-Margret, and her life in community. Commentary provides historical context throughout.

Originally: Arnold, Annemarie. Youth Movement to Bruderhof: Letters and Diaries of Annemarie Arnold née Wächter, 1926–1932. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1986.

Zehrer, Karl. Evangelische Freikirchen und das “Dritte Reich” [Protestant Free Churches and the “Third Reich”]. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986.

Five official documents from 1936 and 1937 concerning the Bruderhof in Germany are reprinted on pp. 153–56. Brief discussion of the Bruderhof under Nazism also appears on pp. 42–43 and 92–93 (nn. 146–48).

Zumpe, Hans, Emmy Arnold, Georg Barth et al. Eberhard Arnold: Sein Leben für die Bruderhöfe; seine Sendung für das kommende Reich Gottes und die Anrichtung völliger Gemeinschaft unter den Menschen [Eberhard Arnold: His Life for the Bruderhofs; His Commission for the Coming Kingdom of God, and the Establishment of Complete Community among Human Beings]. Silum, Liechtenstein: Buchverlag des Almbruderhof, 1936.

A biographical booklet (62 pp.) compiled in December 1935, the month following Arnold’s death.

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Book Reviews

Falter, G. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Archiv für systematische Philosophie [Archive for Systematic Philosophy] 17:4 (1911): 496–97. [Google Books].

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Freyer-Leipzig, J. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie [Journal for the Psychology of Religion] 5:12 (March 1912): 415. [Google Books].

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Grützmacher, Richard H. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologisches Literaturblatt [Theological Literature Journal] 31:18 (1910): 424–25.

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Herzog. Review of Der Krieg: Ein Aufruf zur Innerlichkeit [The War: A Call to Inwardness], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologisches Literaturblatt [Theological Literature Journal] 36:18 (1915): 427–28.

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

Herzog. Review of Die Religiosität der heutigen Jugend [The Religious Nature of Today’s Youth], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologisches Literaturblatt [Theological Literature Journal] 40:21 (1919): 346–47.

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

Niebergall, Friedrich. Review of Innenland: Ein Wegweiser in die Seele der Bibel [Inner Land: A Guide into the Soul of the Bible], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologische Literaturzeitung [Theological Literature Journal] 44:23 (1919): 279. [Index Theologicus].

Review of Eberhard Arnold’s post-war edition of Inner Land. The book is currently pending digitization.

Richter, Raoul. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Deutsche Literaturzeitung [German Literature Journal] 32:36 (September 1911): 2258–59. [Google Books].

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Schuster, Hermann. Review of Die Religiosität der heutigen Jugend [The Religious Nature of Today’s Youth], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologische Literaturzeitung [Theological Literature Journal] 45:25 (1920): 308. [Index Theologicus].

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

Schwartzkopff, Paul. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologische Literaturzeitung [Theological Literature Journal] 36:22 (1911): 691–95. [Index Theologicus].

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

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Memoirs

Arnold, E. C. H. (Hardy). “The Fate of a Christian Experiment.” The Spectator (London), June 11, 1937, 11–12.

Arnold’s son, Hardy, briefly recounts the origins of the Bruderhof in Germany and the group’s challenges under Nazism.

Arnold, Hardy. “Begegnung mit Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Ein Bericht (1979)” [Meeting with Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Report (1979)]. In Victoria Barnett et al, ed. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Jahrbuch 2:2005/2006. 105–9. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlaghaus, 2005.

The memories of Arnold’s son Hardy on his 1934 contacts with Dietrich Bonhoeffer. The document can be read in our digital archive.

Arnold, Emmy. “50 Jahre Bruderhofgemeinschaft Sannerz: Die Anfangsjahre der Bruderhofgemeinschaften in Deutschland” [50 Years of the Bruderhof Community at Sannerz: The Starting Years of the Bruderhof Communities in Germany]. Fuldaer Zeitung, May 1970.

Arnold, Emmy. A Joyful Pilgrimage: My Life in Community. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

Arnold’s wife, Emmy, recounts her early life the period of the Bruderhof in Germany. The text is based on extensive notes, handwritten in German, some of which go back to the 1930s. Some editorial additions and alterations were made based on later research. The result is one of the most important sources on the life of Eberhard and Emmy Arnold.

Originally: Torches Together: The Beginning and Early Years of the Bruderhof Communities. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1964. [archive.org]. Second edition: 1971. [archive.org]. Third edition: A Joyful Pilgrimage: My Life in Community. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1999. [archive.org]. German edition: Gegen den Strom: Das Werden der Brüderhöfe [Against the Current: The Development of the Bruderhofs]. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1983. Reprint: 1992. German ebook: Gegen den Strom: Ein Leben in der Herausforderung der Bergpredigt [Against the Current: A Life under the Challenge of the Sermon on the Mount]. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2012. [Free download]. An excerpt from Torches Together appears as: Arnold, Emmy. “The Early Years of the Bruderhof.” In Communes: Creating and Managing the Collective Life. Edited by Rosabeth Moss Kanter. 65–75. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.

Arnold, Emmy. “Eberhard Arnold’s Life and Work.” In Eberhard Arnold, A Testimony to Church Community: The Life and Writings of Eberhard Arnold. 1–15. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

A short biography of Arnold, written by his wife.

Original in: Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church Community from His Life and Writings. 1–28. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1973. [archive.org].

Berber, Friedrich. Zwischen Macht und Gewissen: Lebenserinnerungen [Between Power and Conscience: Memoirs]. Munich: Beck, 1986.

Berber met Arnold through the Neuwerk movement in the early 1920s. He recalls his embarrassment at seeing Arnold’s bare, hairy legs when the latter was giving a lecture (pp. 31–32).

Blum, Emil. Als wäre es gestern gewesen [As Though It Were Yesterday]. Zurich: Flamberg, 1973.

Blum’s autobiography. References to Arnold appear in particular in the chapter, “Verbindung mit Neuwerk und Habertshof” [Connection with Neuwerk and Habertshof] (98–114).

Brandenburg, Hans, ed. Ich hatte Durst nach Gott: Aus dem Leben und Dienen von Christa von Viebahn [I Was Thirsty for God: From the Life and Service of Christa von Viebahn]. Aidlingen: Diakonissenmutterhaus Aidlingen[, 1979?]. [Read third printing online].

A chapter on the evangelist General Georg von Viebahn draws on quotes from Arnold, who knew him (pp. 21–33).

Dehn, Günther. Die alte Zeit, die vorigen Jahre: Lebenserinnerungen [The Old Times, the Former Years: Memoirs]. Munich: Kaiser, 1962.

Dehn’s autobiography. A pastor, theologian, and religious socialist, Dehn and Arnold had overlapping interests and operated in similar circles. Arnold appears in the chapters “Bund religiöser Sozialisten” [Association of Religious Socialists] (204–29) and “Neuwerk” (230–46).

Reprint: 1964.

Eggers, Ulrich. Community for Life. Scottdale, PA: Herald, 1998. [archive.org].

An outsider’s account of life at the Woodcrest Bruderhof in New York State. Recounts Bruderhof history in places, with some inaccuracies.

Harder, Johannes. Aufbruch ohne Ende: Geschichten meines Lebens [Awakening without End: Stories from My Life]. Edited by Hermann Horn. Wuppertal, Germany: Brockhaus, 1992.

Harder was a writer and religious socialist. Here in his memoirs he provides a brief portrait of Arnold and the early Bruderhof (102–4).

Harder, Johannes. “Eberhard Arnold.” Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 4 (1975): 15–16.

In German. A tribute to Arnold as Harder remembers him, capturing something of the impression he made on those around him.

Hönig, Ludwig and Margrit Hönig, ed. Otto Bruder: Aus seinem Leben und Wirken [Otto Bruder: From His Life and Works]. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk 1975. [archive.org].

A collection of excerpts from Otto Bruder’s writings. Bruder was part of the first Bruderhof at Sannerz for a couple of years, among other things contributing songs for the Sannerz songbook and articles for the Neuwerk periodical (which he himself had earlier founded under the name Der christliche Demokrat [The Christian Democrat]). See the references to Arnold and Sannerz on pp. 11, 49–50, 56–57, and 162–63. The book draws from the collection of his unpublished texts in the German Bundesarchiv, which likely provide other important information in this connection.

Hüssy-Dalgas, Gertrud. “Ein Tag auf dem Bruderhof” [A Day at the Bruderhof]. Bergwinkel-Bote 31 (1980): 114–20.

Hüssy-Dalgas recalls daily life at the Rhön Bruderhof.

“In Pursuit of Jesus: An Oral History of the Bruderhof.” Sojourners (May 1984): 16–20.

Bruderhof members recall life in Germany, England, and Paraguay. Interviewees include Hardy Arnold, Hans Meier, Winifred and Rudi Hildel, John Hinde, and Arnold and Gladys Mason.

Kindt, Werner, ed. Die deutsche Jugendbewegung 1920 bis 1933: Die bündische Zeit [The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933: The Bündische Period]. Düsseldorf: Diederich, 1974.

Contains a very large selection of primary texts relating to different groups in the German Youth Movement. Some of these texts can be classed as memoirs. Sources concerning the Neuwerk movement can be found on pp. 635–53, some of which mention Arnold. Arnold’s name occasionally also appears in sources concerning other groups. See pp. 272, 277, 600, 1499.

Körber, Normann. “Kampf um die Schlüchterner Jugend” [The Fight for the Youth of Schlüchtern]. In Hermann Schafft: Ein Lebenswerk [Hermann Schafft: A Life’s Work]. Edited by Werner Kindt. 60–69. Kassel, Germany: Stauda, 1960.

Körber recalls the Neuwerk movement and his differences with Arnold and those at Sannerz, the group that would go on to become the Bruderhof.

“Letters from Friends.” In Eberhard Arnold. A Testimony to Church Community: The Life and Writings of Eberhard Arnold. 39–53. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

Brief recollections from people who knew Arnold during his lifetime, collected for the publication of this book.

Earlier print edition: 2011. Originally in: Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church-Community from His Life and Writings. 73–100. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1964. Second edition: 1973, with hyphen omitted from subtitle. [archive.org].

Mason, Arnold and Gladys Mason. How We Came to the Bruderhof: And Our Memories of Eberhard Arnold. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1977.

A very short memoir by Arnold and Gladys Mason, who came from the UK to join the Bruderhof in Liechtenstein.

Meier, Hans. “Die Bergpredigt leben: Der herausfordernde Weg der Bruderhöfe” [Living the Sermon on the Mount: The Challenging Way of the Bruderhofs; “Die Bergpredigt leben II: Fortsetzung und Schluß” [Living the Sermon on the Mount II: Continuation and Conclusion]. Swanbergbrief (Communität Casteller Ring), no. 3 (1982): 9–11; no. 4 (1982): 6–8.

Meier recounts the Bruderhof’s beginnings and history, up to migrating to the US from Paraguay.

Meier, Hans. “Erinnerungen eines Bruderhöfers” [Memories of a Member of the Bruderhof]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 1 (1983): 31–38; no. 2:32–37; 3:24–29; 4:34–40.

Meier provides a detailed account of how he came to the Rhön Bruderhof in the 1930s, upto its dissolution by the Nazis in 1937.

Meier, Hans. Hans Meier Tells His Story to a Friend. Ulster Park, NY: Plough, 1988. [Free download (alternative pagination)].

A very short autobiographical text by Hans Meier, who was involved in religious socialist circles in Switzerland before joining the Bruderhof.

Meier, Hans. Solange das Licht brennt: Lebensbericht eines Mitglieds der neuhutterischen Bruderhof-Gemeinschaft [So Long as the Light Burns: The Story of a Member of the Neo-Hutterite Bruderhof Community]. Norfolk, CT: Hutterian Brethren, Deer Spring; Birnbach, Germany: Bruderhof-Gemeinschaft Michaelshof, 1990.

Second edition: 1995. Unpublished English translation: “As Long as there is Light,” 1995 (held in the BHA).

Meier, Hans. “The Dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof in Germany.” Mennonite Historical Bulletin 49:7 (1980): 1–6. [archive.org].

Meier provides his own account of the Rhön Bruderhof’s 1937 dissolution under the Nazi government, addressing German Mennonite accounts (especially that of Michael Horsch) that accused the movement of financial mismanagement. Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” under articles, below.

Melzer, Friso. “Some Reminisces in Memory of Dr. Eberhard Arnold.” Arunodayam (Christavashram, Kerala, India) 31:1–2 (January–February 1975): 8–9.

Melzer briefly recalls at meeting in the winter of 1927 or 1928 put on by the German Christian Student Movement (DCSV) which Arnold spoke at. Melzer reflects on the impression Arnold made on the crowd, as well as Arnold’s legacy.

Merz, Georg. Wege und Wandlungen: Erinnerungen aus der Zeit von 1892–1922 [Paths and Transformations: Memories from the Period of 1892–1922]. Edited by Johannes Merz. Munich: Kaiser, 1961.

Georg Merz was a Lutheran pastor and theologian. He talks about Arnold’s early evangelistic work among students on pp. 120 and 132, and Arnold at the Tambach conference on pp. 239–41.

Mow, Merrill. Torches Rekindled: The Bruderhof’s Struggle for Renewal. Ulster Park, NY: Plough, 1989.

While the focus of this book is on later Bruderhof history, anecdotal details sprinkled throughout will provide the reader with further information concerning Arnold's life and thought.

Second, expanded edition: 1990. Third edition: 1991.

Pitter, Přemysl. “Erinnerungen an Eberhard Arnold” [Memories of Eberhard Arnold]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 4 (1975): 16–17.

Pitter, who met Arnold through Christian communitarian circles in the mid-1920s, offers his memories of Arnold and a tribute to him and the Bruderhof movement.

Ragaz, Leonhard. Mein Weg. 2 vols. Zurich: Diana, 1952.

Ragaz briefly recounts his relationship with Eberhard Arnold through the Neuwerk movement and the Bruderhof, offering some critical remarks in vol. 2, pp. 166–67.

Rathmann, August. Ein Arbeiterleben: Erinnerungen an Weimar und danach [The Life of a Worker: Memories of Weimar and Afterward]. Wuppertal, Germany: Peter Hammer, 1983.

Rathmann was involved in socialist youth circles throughout his life. He briefly writes about Eberhard Arnold and the Neuwerk movement on pp. 158–59.

Schoeps, Hans Joachim. Rückblicke: Die letzten 30 Jahre (1925–1955) und danach [Retrospects: The Last 30 years (1925–1955) and After]. Berlin: Haude und Spener, 1963.

Schoeps met Arnold when he was sixteen and recalls the significant impact that he had on his life. When Arnold spoke about his religion, it was not an abstraction but a reality. See pp. 43–48.

First edition: Die letzten dreißig Jahre: Rückblicke [The Last Thirty Years: Retrospects]. Stuttgart: Klett, 1956.

Tripp, Wilhelm. “‘Neuwerk’ – was war und was blieb: Rückblick auf eine Bewegung, die im Bergwinkel ihre Heimat hatte” [Neuwerk – What Was and What Remained: Remembering a Movement That Had Its Home in Bergwinkel]. Kinzigtal Nachrichten, November 5, 1971.

Tripp recalls the Neuwerk movement, Sannerz, and Arnold.

Völger, Hildegard. “Vom Aufbruch des ‘Neuwerk’ 1920” [The Beginning of “Neuwerk” in 1920]. Gemeindebrief der Evangelischen Kirchengemeinde Schlüchtern (June 1970): 1–2.

Völger (née Hoppe) recalls the early Neuwerk movement, touching on Arnold’s importance for the group.

Wingard, Nils. “Ung svensk ingenjör 1931...” [A Young Swedish Engineer in 1931… (Swedish)]. Nytt Liv (New Life), no. 12 (December 1984): 17.

Wingard recalls how he and his wife came to join the Rhön Bruderhof. More detailed memoirs, alongside partial English translations, are held in the BHA.

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Scholarly Literature

The sources in the following selection vary in regard to scholarly rigor and intended audience. The line between scholarly and popular-level works is not always clear-cut.

Books and Theses

In-Depth

Barnett, Michael Cole. “The Bruderhof (Society of Brothers) and the Hutterites in Historical Context.” Ph.D. thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, TX, 1995. Digitized with alternative pagination at: [Free download (alternative pagination)].

Barnett details the history of the relationship between the Hutterites and the Bruderhof, who were in communion from 1930–1955 and 1974–1995. The thesis basic overviews of both Hutterite and Bruderhof histories, beliefs, and organization. Two passages on the relationship between these two groups during Eberhard Arnold’s time will be of particular interest (pp. 82–83, 99–105 in original; pp. 77–78, 91–95 in alternative pagination version). The thesis largely summarizes material available in published primary sources such as Emmy Arnold’s A Joyful Pilgrimage and the letter collection, Brothers Unite.

Barth, Emmy. An Embassy Besieged: The Story of a Christian Community in Nazi Germany. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2010. [Free download].

Emmy Barth Maendel, is a historian, archivist, and current member of the Bruderhof. Her book provides a detailed account of the group’s history under Nazism, often proceeding month by month through the events of the time. Maendel’s intimate familiarity with archival material informs her selection of key primary source documents, and lengthy excerpts are reproduced in the work to allow readers to engage with the texts themselves. A summary of this period in Bruderhof history, based on Maendel’s book, is provided on this website.

German translation: Botschaftsbelagerung: Die Geschichte einer christlichen Gemeinschaft im Nationalsozialismus; eine kommentierte Dokumentation. Translated by Jutta Manke. Bad Klosterlausnitz, Germany: Holzlandgemeinschaft, 2018.

Barth’s book builds on the work of another Bruderhof member, whose publication had a much lower print run: Brinkmann, Hugo. God’s Ambassadors: The Bruderhof in Nazi Germany. Edited by Art and Mary Wiser. Farmington, PA: Plough, 2001.

Baum, Markus. Against the Wind: Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhof. Translated by Eileen Robertshaw. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

Baum’s monograph constitutes the most detailed biography of Arnold to date, drawing on multiple primary and secondary sources. His work provides a detailed overview of Arnold’s life and though, and is recommended as a starting point for all researchers working on anything related to Arnold. The (much shorter) biography we provide on this site is based on Baum’s work.

Print edition: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1998. Pagination differs. [archive.org]. Original German: Stein des Anstosses: Eberhard Arnold 1883–1935 [Stumbling Block]. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1996. German reprint: Eberhard Arnold: Ein Leben im Geist des Bergpredigt [Eberhard Arnold: A Life in the Spirit of the Sermon on the Mount]. Schwarzenfeld, Germany: Neufeld, 2013.

Baumann, Imanuel. Loyalitätsfragen: Glaubensgemeinschaften der täuferischen Tradition in den staatlichen Neugründungsphasen des 20. Jahrhunderts [Questions of Loyalty: Faith Communities in the Anabaptist Tradition during the State Reestablishment Phases of the 20th Century]. Göttingen: V&R Unipress, 2021.

Blum, Emil. Die Neuwerk-Bewegung: 1922–1933 [The Neuwerk Movement: 1922–1933]. Kassel, Germany: Johannes-Stauda, 1973.

A short (48 pp.) history of the Neuwerk movement, which the author Blum was a part of, with Arnold. The latter’s role is briefly discussed on pp. 12–13, though the rest of the book provides a helpful outline of the movement itself.

Domer, Richard E., Winifred Hildel, and John Hinde. May They All Be One: The Life of Heini Arnold. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992.

A biography of Heini Arnold, Eberhard’s son. References to Eberhard appear throughout. The book was intended for internal Bruderhof use and had a low print run, but cf. Mommsen, Homage to a Broken Man, below.

Gbiorczyk, Peter. Propst Wilhelm Wibbeling (1891 bis 1966): Jugendbewegter, reformierter Theologe im “Zeitalter der Extreme” [Provost Wilhelm Wibbeling (1891 to 1966): Theologian of the Youth Movement and Reformed Theology in the “Age of Extremes”]. Aachen, Germany: Shaker, 2016.

See especially “Mitarbeit in der Neuwerk-Bewegung” [(Wibbeling’s) Work with the Neuwerk Movement] (pp. 69–87), and some scattered references to Arnold (pp. 93, 105–6, 139, 698). The index erroneously points to two other pages that do not relate to Arnold at all. As such, there may be other places in the book that are of interest but are not identified here.

Heuzeroth, Günter, ed. . . . viel solches bleibt mir ungetan: Hedwig; Das stürmische Leben einer Westerwälderin Hedwig Schäfer-Eichbauer; Die Freusburg-Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Lebenserneuerung 1924 bis 1934 [. . . Many Such Things Remain Undone for Me: Hedwig; The Stormy Life of a Westerwald Woman, Hedwig Schäfer-Eichbauer; The “Freusburg Working Group for Life Renewal” from 1924 to 1934]. Oldenburg: Druck & Verlagscooperative GmbH, 1998.

Biography of Hedwig Schäfer-Eichbauer, a woman involved with various movements and groups in 1920s and 30s Germany. Her connection with the Bruderhof is treated on pp. 203–18.

Kreß, Barbara. “Der Bruderhof in Deutschland: Von 1920 bis 1937.” 1987.

A ~150 pp. research paper on the years of the Bruderhof in Germany. Besides the date, no information is provided on the degree the paper was written for. Kreß draws on a range on published primary sources, as well as items published by Arnold when he was alive, and secondary sources in German. The paper was found in the Archiv der deutschen Jugendbewegung (Archive of the German Youth Movement). A copy is held in the BHA.

Kupisch, Karl. Studenten entdecken die Bibel: Die Geschichte der Deutschen Christlichen Studenten-Vereinigung (DCSV) [Students discover the Bible: The History of the German Christian Student Movement]. Hamburg: Furche, 1964.

Arnold was involved in the German Christian student movement (DCSV) from 1905 onward. He appears throughout the book, on pp. 52–53, 78–81, 102–3, 104–7, 112–16, 157, 256–57 (nn. 25–26), 261 (nn. 21–22), 263 (n. 53), 264 (n. 1), 266 (n. 15), 267 (n. 28), 269 (nn. 44, 46, 50), 282 (nn. 56–57), 293–94 (n. 159), 298. The book also touches on many other important figures whom Arnold was involved with.

Mommsen, Peter. Homage to a Broken Man: The Life of J. Heinrich Arnold. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2014. [Free download].

Peter Mommsen is a member of the Bruderhof and editor of Plough Quarterly. In this book, he writes about his grandfather, the son of Eberhard Arnold. The material is based on archival documents and conversations with older Bruderhof members. It contains extensive details on Eberhard Arnold not found elsewhere.

German translation: Radikal barmherzig: Das Leben von Johann Heinrich Arnold; Eine Geschichte von Glauben und Vergebung, Hingabe und Gemeinschaft. Translated by Christopher Groß. Schwarzenfeld, Germany: Neufeld, 2017.

Nauerth, Thomas. Zeugnis, Liebe und Widerstand: Der Rhönbruderhof 1933–1937 [Witness, Love, and Resistance: The Rhön Bruderfhof 1933–1937]. Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh, 2018.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. This book constitutes his main study and provides a very detailed account of Bruderhof life during this period, drawing on primary sources from the BHA and archival material from other sites. In addition to historical analysis, Nauerth addresses ethical and theological problems that arise – at least from a Christian perspective. These use of using deception in relationship to Nazi authorities, whether discipleship can only be properly carried out in community, and what it means to love your enemies in a time like this, among other topics.

The book has been translated into English and is currently pending publication.

Oved, Yaacov. The Witness of the Brothers: A History of the Bruderhof. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996. [archive.org].

A history of the Bruderhof from its beginnings to the 1990s, when the book was written. The first three chapters concern the Bruderhof during Arnold’s lifetime. Oved draws on archival material, memoirs, and interviews with Bruderhof members who were alive at the time.

Reprints: 2013; London: Routledge, 2017.

Plessow, Ulrike. “Das Fortleben der hutterischen Utopie im ‘Bruderhof’ der Arnoldleut: Untersucht anhand von historischen und aktuellen Textdokumenten” [The Ongoing Life of Hutterite Utopia in the ‘Bruderhof’ of the Arnoldleut: Examined through Historical and Contemporary Textual Documents]. Master’s thesis, University of Hamburg, 1994.

Plessow attends to the Hutterite heritage in the Bruderhof, with much of the analysis concerning texts written by Arnold himself. See especially pp. 25–51. A copy is held in the BHA.

Pruisken, Andreas. “Spirit versus Structure.” Yale Divinity School, 1984.

The research paper is divided into five parts and pagination starts again from the beginning each time on parts three, four, and five. The chapter of interest is part four, titled, “Bonhoeffer’s Bruderhaus and Arnold’s Bruderhof—an Historical Realization of the Struggle of Spirit and Structure.” The paper is interesting in regard to subject matter, though it draws on a limited number of sources and is not essential reading. A copy is held in the BHA.

Randall, Ian M. A Christian Peace Experiment: The Bruderhof Community in Britain, 1933–1942. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018.

Although Randall’s focus is on the Bruderhof in England, in the first two chapters he looks at connections between England, Arnold, and the early Bruderhof, drawing on a range of primary and secondary sources (1–44). Arnold occasionally appears elsewhere, and his connections with the North American Hutterites and London’s Kingsley Hall are explored on pp. 130–40.

Randall, Ian M. “Church Community is a Gift of the Holy Spirit”: The Spirituality of the Bruderhof Community. Oxford, UK: Regent’s Park College, 2014. [Free download].

This short book (~60pp.) looks at the often-neglected theme of spirituality in Bruderhof history and contemporary practice. An opening literature review provides a helpful and critical summary of other studies on the Bruderhof (pp. 2–9). The book offers a detailed account and analysis of Arnold’s own spirituality, alongside that of the Bruderhof.

Schempp, Hermann. Gemeinschaftssiedlungen auf religiöser und weltanschaulicher Grundlage [Communitarian Settlements with Religious and Philosophical Foundations]. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1969.

The Bruderhof’s origins in the Youth Movement, alongside other settlements, and their later history, is treated on pp. 125–34 (125–30 for the Bruderhof in Arnold’s lifetime).

Selke, Britta. “Eberhard Arnold und seine Bruderhöfe” [Eberhard Arnold and His Bruderhofs]. Dissertation, University of Göttingen, 1986.

A ~130pp. research paper on Arnold’s life and the Bruderhof during his time. The paper also gives attention to his intellectual formation and theological outlook. It was found in the Archiv der deutschen Jugendbewegung (Archive of the German Youth Movement). A copy is held in the BHA.

Stieglitz, Thomas von. Kirche als Bruderschaft: Das hutterische Kirchenbild bei Eberhard Arnold aus heutiger katholischer Sicht [Church as Brotherhood: The Hutterite View of the Church According to Eberhard Arnold, a Contemporary Catholic Perspective]. Published Ph.D. thesis, Paderborn University, Germany, 1991.

A very detailed study of Arnold’s “Hutterite” theology, focussing in particular on his ecclesiology. After the introduction (1–14), the first part of the book attends to historical Hutterite theology from the years 1528–1989 (15–90) and the second to Arnold’s theology (91–206). A brief excursus addresses the beliefs of the Bruderhof after Arnold’s death (207–22). The largest section of the book, part three provides a critical evaluation of Arnold’s view of the church (223–358). The conclusion, “Anregungen zu einem hutterisch-katholischen Dialog in der Frage des Kirchenverständnisses” [Suggestions for a Hutterite-Catholic Dialog on the Question of the Church], briefly outlines “Das hutterische Kirchenverständnis als Korrektiv zum katholischen” [The Hutterite Understanding of the Church as a Corrective for the Catholic Understanding], and vice versa (359–70).

In addition to the book, the BHA holds copies of the unpublished thesis from 1990, including an earlier draft.

Thomson, Walton. Pioneer in Community: Henri Lasserre’s Contribution to the Fully Cooperative Society. Toronto: Ryerson, 1949. [archive.org].

Includes two chapters analysing Lasserre’s involvement with the Bruderhof, with generous quotations from published material and correspondence (pp. 64–84). Lassere’s own history of the community up to 1938, the year he likely first came into contact with them, appears on pp. 65–68.

Tyldesley, Mike. No Heavenly Delusion? A Comparative Study of Three Communal Movements. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 2003.

This book compares three communal movements that arose out of the German Youth Movement: the Bruderhof, the Integrierte Gemeinde, and the Kibbutz. The first chapter, on the German Youth Movement, provides particularly helpful background for understanding the genesis of the first Bruderhof movement. This relationship is addressed explicitly in the following chapter (pp. 39–42). Connections between the three groups are briefly explored (pp. 53–55). The chapter on the Bruderhof recounts the movement’s full history; its story and thought during Arnold’s lifetime is summarized on pp. 61–64, 71–82. Two final comparative and analytical chapters (pp. 151–94) address common themes in the study of the three groups, occasionally relevant for scholars of the period under Arnold.

Vollmer, Antje. Die Neuwerkbewegung: Zwischen Jugendbewegung und religiösem Sozialismus [The Neuwerk Movement: Between the Youth Movement and Religious Socialism]. Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 2016.

This book details the history of the Neuwerk movement, which the Arnolds were a part of when they founded the first Bruderhof at Sannerz. This period is addressed on pp. 77–134, centring on life at Sannerz, the publishing house, the international peace movement, the Youth Movement, and the 1922 split at Sannerz.

A lightly annotated, unpublished English translation is held by the BHA. Originally (pagination differs): Die Neuwerkbewegung 1919–1935: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Jugendbewegung, des Religiösen Sozialismus und der Arbeiterbildung [The Neuwerk Movement 1919–1935: A Contribution to the History of the Youth Movement, Religious Socialism, and Worker Education]. Published Ph.D. thesis, Free University of Berlin, 1973.

Wehowsky, Stephan. Religiöse Interpretation politischer Erfahrung: Eberhard Arnold und die Neuwerkbewegung als Exponenten des religiösen Sozialismus zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik [Religious Interpretation of Political Experience: Eberhard Arnold and the Neuwerk Movement as Exponents of Religious Socialism in the Weimar Republic Period]. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1980. [archive.org].

A detailed study of Arnold and the Neuwerk movement, attending to background in romanticism and the Youth Movement, Arnold’s own biography and intellectual development, the establishment of the Neuwerk movement, and the latter’s theological commitments. The final chapter discusses three questions: whether the movement developed a satisfactory understanding of God in light of war and related social changes; whether the movement’s theological framework can break free from its roots in Romanticism; to what extent Arnold and other Neuwerk members not being formally involved in politics represents a theological deficiency.

Originally: Ph.D. thesis, Marburg University, Germany, 1979.

Wissenbach, Michael. “Der Habertshof: Versuch ‘alternativen Lebens’ in der Weimarer Republik; Voraussetzungen und Probleme seiner Entwicklung” [The Habertshof: An Attempt at ‘Alternative Life’ in the Weimar Republic; Requirements for and Problems of Its Development]. Hausarbeit paper, [Frankfurt?] 1981.

A 107pp. study of the Habertshof, a settlement associated with the Neuwerk movement that Arnold was a part of. His name appears in places. A copy is held in the BHA.

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Brief Discussion and Comments

Alt, Franz. Liebe ist möglich: Die Bergpredigt im Atomzeitalter [Love is Possible: The Sermon on the Mount in the Atomic Age]. Munich: Piper, 1985.

“It’s above preserving life. Being conservative means wanting to preserve. But if only conservatives were actually conservative! The conservative Christian pacifist, Eberhard Arnold, also worked together with socialists and communists on his Rhön Bruderhof in the thirties. Characteristic of this friend of the Sermon on the Mount, he changed the last line of the socialist battle song, ‘Holy, the last battle,’ into a Christian pacifist one: ‘Holy, the power of love.’ Christians who know what they want and what they live for do not fear human contact. Being conservative does not mean guarding the ashes but rather the flame” (p. 195). Alt refers to a song in Sonnenlieder (Sun Songs), a book compiled by Emmy Arnold and Trudi Hüssy (née Dalgas), originally for use at Sannerz. The text is yet to be uploaded to our digital archive.

German: “Es geht um die Bewahrung des Lebens. Bewahren wollen heißt konservativ sein. Ach, wären die Konservativen doch konservativ! Der christlich-konservative Pazifist Eberhard Arnold hat in den dreißiger Jahren auf seinem Rhönbruderhof auch mit Sozialisten und Kommunisten zusammengearbeitet. Für diesen Freund der Bergpredigt ist bezeichnend, daß er die letzte Zeile des sozialistischen Kampfliedes ‘Heilig die letzte Schlacht’ in das christlich-pazifistische ‘Heilig der Liebe Macht’ umgewandelt hat. Christen, die wissen, was sie wollen und wofür sie leben, haben keine Berührungsängste. Konservativ sein heißt nicht, die Asche hüten, sondern die Flamme.”

Brandenburg, Hans-Christian, and Rudolf Daur. Die Brücke zu Köngen: Fünfzig Jahre Bund der Köngener; 1919–1969 [The Bridge to Köngen: Fifty Years of the Köngen Association; 1919–1969]. Stuttgart: Steinkopf, 1969.

A scholarly history, part memoir, of the Protestant youth association, the Bund der Köngener. Arnold appears on pp. 33 and 76–77.

Brown, Dale W. Biblical Pacifism: A Peace Church Perspective. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press, 1986. [archive.org].

A seemingly unfinished thought, Brown writes, “The Church of the Brethren is often defined theologically as a synthesis of Anabaptism with the Pietist reformation. Yet, what more beautiful expression of the same can be found in the kingdom theology of Eberhard Arnold, founder of the twentieth century Hutterian Society of Brothers” (p. 1).

There is no mention of Arnold or the Bruderhof elsewhere in the book, nor in the second edition at all (2003).

Conkin, Paul K. Two Paths to Utopia: The Hutterites and the Llano Colony. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1964.

The connection between Arnold, the Bruderhof, and the Hutterites is briefly treated on pp. 95–98. Arnold’s date of death is erroneously given as 1939 rather than 1935.

Cort, John C. Christian Socialism: An Informal History. Second edition. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2020.

Cort quotes a conversation he had with Hans Meier on Arnold’s response to Barth’s address at the Tambach conference:

“As Eberhard Arnold said to the religious socialists at Tambach in 1919, responding to the discouragements of Barth, ‘Karl Barth is right. Human action goes nowhere. But if God tells us to do something, is that just human action?’” (p. 356).

Eller, Vernard. Christian Anarchy: Jesus' Primacy over the Powers. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987. [Read online (unpaginated)].

Eller comments on the significance of Arnold for Christian anarchism:

“Barth's relationship to Religious Socialism came to a head when, in 1919, at Tambach, Germany, he addressed a conference of about a hundred religious-socialist leaders from Germany and Switzerland. The formal response to Barth's paper was made by one Eberhard Arnold, who observed that the lecture was ‘a rather complicated kind of machine that runs backwards and forwards and shoots in all directions with no lack of both visible and hidden joints’ (Busch, p. 110). [This quote is from Barth himself and wrongly attributed to Arnold due to a misreading of Busch.]

“(Arnold could have been prophetic if had only gone on to say: ‘--which is just how an engine of Christian Anarchy should operate.’ Eberhard Arnold was himself within a year or so of founding that Christian community which has survived to the present day as the ‘Bruderhof’ movement. In examining Arnold's own thought in the recently published anthology of his works--God's Revolution [Paulist Press, 1984]--it becomes apparent that he is Blumhardtian enough that any Christian Anarchy ascribed to Blumhardt would have to apply to Arnold as well. Yet it is Arnold who may take the prize as the very first person to use the term "anarchism" according to the exact definition and with the exact application we intend now. In the Introduction and Survey to his 1926 sourcebook--The Early Christians [Baker, 1979]--he wrote: ‘At the same time, it was within the Church that monasticism once again achieved that radical “anarchism” of faith responsible to God alone which had been alive in the beginning’ [pp.52-53])” (p. 112).

French, David and Elena. Working Communally: Patterns and Possibilities. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1975.

Bruderhof life and history is treated on pp. 172–79. The brief account of Bruderhof history is based on Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together. Minor references to contemporary Bruderhof life up until 1975 appear elsewhere in the book.

Friedmann, Robert. Die Schriften der huterischen Täufergemeinschaften: Gesamtkatalog ihrer Manusckriptbücher, ihrer Schreiber und ihrer Literatur 1529–1667 [The Writings of the Hutterian Anabaptist Communities: A Complete Catalog of Their Manuscript Books, Their Writers, and Their Literature, 1529-1667]. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1965.

The catalog extends to Hutterite manuscripts housed in the BHA, much of which were collected by Arnold during his trip to North America in 1930–31. See pp. 6, 79–83.

Friedmann, Robert. Mennonite Piety through the Centuries: Its Genius and Its Literature. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1949. [archive.org].

Friedmann discusses a distinction between Anabaptism and Pietism, going on to quote a letter that Arnold sent him, where Arnold distinguishes between Pietism, which seeks personal spiritual fulfillment, and “prophetism,” which seeks God’s without regard for spiritual gratification (p. 88).

Gibbard, Noel. On the Wings of the Dove: The International Effects of the 1904–05 Revival. Bridgend, Wales: Bryntirion, 2002.

A study of the Welsh revival, with minor references to Arnold. See pp. 43–45, 193–95.

Goertz, Hans-Jürgen. “Nationale Erhebung und religiöser Niedergang: Mißglückte Aneignung des täuferischen Leitbildes im Dritten Reich” [National Uprising and Religious Downfall: The Failed Adoption of the Anabaptist Model in the Third Reich]. In Umstrittenes Täufertum: 1525–1975; Neue Forschungen [Anabaptism Contested: 1525–1975; New Research]. Edited by Hans-Jürgen Goertz. 259–89. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1975. [archive.org].

Goertz includes a paragraph on the relationship between German Mennonites and the Bruderhof, criticizing the former for their lack of solidarity: “Here the parable of the Good Samaritan was overridden” (Hier wurde das Gleichnis vom Barmherzigen Samariter außer Kraft gesetzt).

Second, revised edition: 1977.

Haas, Joachim. Abseits der “grossen” Geschichte: Opposition und Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus im Raum Fulda; Versuch einer Spurensicherung [Far from “Great” History: Opposition and Resistance to National Socialism in the Fulda Area; A Forensic Attempt]. Frankfurt: Jugend und Politik, 1989.

A short summary of the Rhön Bruderhof and their clash with the Nazis appears on pp. 93–94 (notes on 149–50). The rest of the book looks at other groups in the area of Fulda that opposed Nazism.

Harrison, Wes. Andreas Ehrenpreis and Hutterian Faith and Practice. Kitchener, Ontario: Pandora, 1997.

Harrison comments on the significance of the early Hutterite bishop Andreas Ehrenpreis for the relationship between the Bruderhof and the Hutterites in the early 1930s (pp. 240–42).

Heinz-Mohr, Gerd. Christsein in Kommunitäten [Being Christian in Communities]. Stuttgart: Steinkopf, 1968.

Heinz-Mohr provides a thematically oriented exploration of different Protestant communities, situating Arnold and the Bruderhof within a wider context. The Bruderhof is mentioned on pp. 20–21, 40, 49–50, and 86–87.

Henkys, Jürgen. Bibelarbeit: Der Umgang mit der Heiligen Schrift in den evangelischen Jugendverbänden nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg [Bible Study: The Handling of Holy Scripture in Protestant Youth Associations after the First World War]. Hamburg: Furche, 1966.

A critical discussion of the approach to the Bible in different youth associations from this period. Arnold’s is treated alongside others in chapters six and seven: “Die deutsche Jugendbewegung,” and “Die reformatorische Selbstbesinnung der Theologie“ (73–110).

Hermand, Jost. Grüne Utopien in Deutschland: Zur Geschichte des ökologischen Bewußtseins [Green Utopias in Germany: The History of Ecological Consciousness]. Frankfurt: Fischer, 1991.

Under “The Cult of Technology and Settlement Utopianism in the Weimar Republic” (Technikkult und Siedlungsutopismus in der Weimarer Republik), Hermand lists a number of settlements that, he states, arose out of the cult of technology in the early twenties, seeking to be satellites on the way to a new, utopian future. Sannerz is included here. “But,” he continues, “all these settlement projects failed” (Doch alle diese Siedlungsprojekte scheiterten; p. 106). Hermand was either thinking of the split at Sannerz in 1922 or did not make the connection with the Bruderhof movement that had its beginnings there.

Hostetler, John A. Hutterite Society. Second edition. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1997. [archive.org].

The history of Arnold, the Bruderhof, and the Hutterites is briefly treated on pp. 279–83 (events during Arnold’s lifetime on pp. 279–80 only).

First edition: 1974. [archive.org].

Hostetler, John A., and Gertrude Enders Huntington. The Hutterites in North America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. [archive.org].

The Bruderhof’s connection to the Hutterites is briefly addressed on pp. 107–8. There are some inaccuracies in the account of the 1955 split between the Hutterites and the Bruderhof.

New editions have appeared through 1980, 1996, and 2002.

Kieber, Georg. Silum: Für die Alpgenossenschaft Silum zur Einsegnung des St. Wendelin Bildstöckles am 22. September 1991 [Silum: For the Alpgenossenschaft Silum (Silum Alpine Cooperative), on the Occasion of the Blessing of the St. Wendelin Wayside Shrine on September 22, 1991]. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: Alpgenossenschaft Silum, 1991.

Contains a brief history of the Bruderhof in Liechtenstein (pp. 21–23, 28).

Kim, Hyun Jin. “Protestant Communities as Mission Communities: A Systematic and Historical Study.” Ph.D. thesis. North-West University, South Africa, 2011.

The thesis explores Christian ideas of community throughout history and includes case studies of contemporary intentional communities. A case study of the Robertbridge Bruderhof in the UK includes a section on its history. Material on the Hutterites uses Arnold as a source.

Kleinsasser, Ian. Blessings and Burdens: 100 Years of Hutterites in Manitoba. MacGregor, Manitoba: Hutterian Brethren Book Centre, 2019.

Reference to Arnold and the Bruderhof throughout, especially in the first section. This material is drawn from published primary sources, though some archival photographs are also included.

Laquer, Walter Z. Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement. New York: Basic, 1962. [archive.org (text only)].

Arnold, the Bruderhof, and their connection to the German Youth Movement are very briefly treated on pp. 119–20.

Later editions: New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1984 [archive.org]; Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2018.

Lichdi, Diether Götz. Mennoniten im Dritten Reich: Dokumentation und Deutung [Mennonites in the Third Reich: Documentation and Interpretation]. Weierhof, Germany: Mennonitischer Geschichtsverein, 1977. [archive.org].

Lichdi touches on Mennonite relations with the Bruderhof in Germany and discusses the dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof on pp. 92–96 (notes on 187). Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” below under chapters and articles.

Lichti, James Irvin. Houses on the Sand? Pacifist Denominations in Nazi Germany. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.

Scattered references to the Bruderhof (“Hutterites” or “Society of Brothers”) under Nazism throughout. Lichti’s work focusses on Mennonites, Seventh Day Adventists, and Jehovah’s Witnesses. Minor references to the Bruderhof often serve to contrast with the course taken by German Mennonites under Nazism. See pp. 2, 30 (n. 85), 37, 43, 44, 59 (n. 30), 88, 99 (n. 5), 108 (n. 104), 121, 125–26, 135, 142 (nn. 65–68), 150 (n. 146 – references to Arnold and the Bruderhof in Monatshefte der deutschen Freunde), 232 (n. 221).

Perhaps adapted from: “The Response to National Socialism by Denominations with Teachings against Bearing Arms.” Ph.D thesis, University of California, 2000.

Lichti, James Irvin. “Religious Identity vs. "Aryan" Identity: German Mennonites and Hutterites under the Third Reich.” Master’s thesis, San Francisco State University, 1989.

Linse, Ulrich. Barfüßige Propheten: Erlöser der zwanziger Jahre [Barefoot Prophets: Redeemers of the Twenties]. Berlin: Siedler, 1983.

A chapter on Max Schulze-Sölde includes a quote from the painter and Christian socialist that recalls his Pentecost-like experience at Sannerz in 1921: “But I stood leaning against a tree trunk as if delirious, no longer able to cope with the currents that hurtled through me. And while the others relieved their tensions in song, I stepped into the center of the circle, breathing deeply, and everyone became silent. And the words flamed out of me, and I did not know what I was saying and only felt that it was not I who was speaking” (136, quoting Schulze-Sölde’s autobiography).

German: “Ich aber stand wie im Delirium an einen Stamm gelehnt und konnte die Ströme, die mich durchrasten, nicht mehr bewältigen. Und während die anderen ihre Spannungen im Gesang wieder auflösten, trat ich tiefatmend in die Mitte des Kreises und alle wurden still. Und die Worte flammten aus mir heraus, und ich wußte nicht, was ich sprach und fühlte nur, daß nicht ich es was, der da sprach.”

Lüthi, Walter. The Lord’s Prayer: An Exposition. Translated by Kurt Schoenenberger. Richmond, VA: John Knox, 1961.

Lüthi recalls speaking to an unnamed member of the Bruderhof on a number of occasions throughout the Nazi period. He uses the movement’s experience of not relenting despite persecution as example of how Christ answers the prayer, “Lead us not into temptation.” See pp. 59–60.

Original German: Das Unservater: Eine Auslegung. Basel: Reinhardt, 1946. See pp. 81–82.

Mow, Anna B. So Who’s Afraid of Birthdays. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1969.

Mow writes, referring to unnamed reviewers of the collection of Arnold’s talks and writings, Salt and Light: “When Mahatma Gandhi was asked for advice to Christians, one of the points he made was ‘Practice the Sermon on the Mount without adulterating it or toning it down.’ I thought of this when I read comments about a recent book on the Sermon on the Mount, Salt and Light. A prominent churchman who should have been delighted with such a book said it was impractical and would not speak to the world today! But the secular press welcomed it: ‘Among the volumes of interpretations of the Sermon on the Mount, very few seem to provide much salt or light on the subject. The same clichés are used ceaselessly to cover the same parables in the same old way. But Eberhard Arnold has provided both salt and light on the teachings of Christ in this flavorful and enlightening book. The book constitutes a testimony of faith, something really rare in today’s material-minded, dollar driven world. If your faith needs a shot in the arm, or heart, this book should provide it’” (39).

Oved, Yaacov. Distant Brothers: History of the Relations Between the Bruderhof and the Kibbutz. Translated by Hanna Lash and Yehuda Riemer. Ramat Ef’al, Israel: Yad Tabenkin, 1993. [Free download].

The relationship between the Bruderhof and the Kibbutz in Arnold’s time is briefly treated in the first chapter, “Beginnings,” and in the first three pages of the next chapter.

Oved, Yaacov. Two Hundred Years of American Communes. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1988. [archive.org].

Bruderhof history is briefly summarized on pp. xv–v (n. 1). Oved touches on the connection between Arnold and the North American Hutterites on p. 361, erroneously stating that Emmy Arnold accompanied her husband on his trip to North America in 1930.

Peters, Victor. All Things in Common: The Hutterian Way of Life. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1965.

The history of Arnold, the Bruderhof, and the Hutterites is briefly treated on pp. 173–78 (events during Arnold’s lifetime on pp. 173–74 only).

Ramsauer, Peter. Zieh aus deines Vaters Hause: Die Lebenswanderung des Pädagogen Johannes Ramsauer im Bannkreis Pestalozzis [Go Out from Your Father's House: The Educator Johannes Ramsauer and His Life’s Journey under the Spell of Pestalozzi]. Oldenburg, Germany: Isensee, 2005.

Johannes Ramsauer was Arnold’s great-grandfather. A very short summary of Bruderhof history is given on p. 317, under a paragraph on Arnold’s paternal grandmother, Maria Arnold (née Ramsauer). Reference is also made to her at times in the book.

Rigby, Andrew. Alternative Realities: A Study of Communes and Their Members. London: Routledge, 1974.

Rigby briefly discusses Bruderhof history in the context of Anabaptists and the Hutterites. Among other things, he claims, Arnold’s beliefs “identify him very clearly with the world-rejecting asceticism as represented by the Hutterites.” This is supported by a quote from Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together (see pp. 27–28 of Rigby’s work).

Saxby, Trevor J. Pilgrims of a Common Life: Christian Community of Goods through the Centuries. Scottdale, PA: Herald, 1987.

A very brief look at community of goods according to Arnold and the Bruderhof (152–154, 189), as part of a survey of other groups who have shared this commitment from early Christianity to today.

Schmidt, Almut. “Theorie und Praxis der Bruderhofpädogogik: Die Pädagogik einer Lebensgemeinschaft” [The Theory and Practice of Bruderhof Pedagogy: The Pedagogy of a Community]. Master’s thesis, Heidelberg, Pädogogischen Hochschule, 1993. [Free download].

A study of Bruderhof pedagogy, with some reference throughout to Arnold’s writings and Bruderhof history.

Sutton, Roger P. Communal Utopias and the American Experience: Religious Communities, 1732–2000 (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003).

Bruderhof history in Germany is briefly summarised on p. 100.

Whitworth, John McKelvie. God’s Blueprints: A Sociological Study of Three Utopian Sects. London: Routledge, 1975. [archive.org].

Whitworth’s study provides a (somewhat unsympathetic) exploration of three groups: the Shakers (founded 1747), the Oneida Community, and the Bruderhof. The chapter on the Bruderhof (pp. 167–209) weaves together historical material from Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together (later: A Joyful Pilgrimage), Eberhard Arnold’s texts published in English, and some of the few secondary sources on the Bruderhof available at the time of writing.

Reprint: Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2019.

Wirth, Günter. Die deutsche evangelische Kirche und die Novemberrevolution: Eine kritische Untersuchung [The German Protestant Church and the November Revolution: A Critical Analysis]. Edited by the Sekretariat des Hauptvorstandes der Christlich-Demokratischen Union Deutschlands. Hefte aus Burgscheidungen 255. Berlin: Union-Verlag, 1988.

This booklet (38 pp.) comments on the Neuwerk movement and Eberhard Arnold in connection with developments in the Protestant churches after WWI (pp. 14–15).

Zablocki, Benjamin. The Joyful Community: An Account of the Bruderhof—A Communal Movement Now in Its Third Generation. Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1971.

This book provides an overview of Bruderhof life from a sociological perspective. The account of the Bruderhof during Arnold’s lifetime (pp. 63–81) is largely based on Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together (later: A Joyful Pilgrimage).

Reprint: Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Cf.: “Christians Because It Works: A Study of Bruderhof Communitarianism.” Ph.D. thesis, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1967.

Zehrer, Karl. Evangelische Freikirchen und das “Dritte Reich” [Protestant Free Churches and the “Third Reich”]. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986.

Brief discussion of the Bruderhof under Nazism appears on pp. 42–43 and 92–93 (nn. 146–48). For primary sources, see this same entry under period literature, above.

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Chapters, Articles, and Conference Papers

In-Depth

Adam, Dejan. “‘The Practical, Visible Witness of Discipleship’: The Life and Convictions of Hans Meier (1902–1992).” In Counter-Cultural Communities: Baptistic Life in Twentieth-Century Europe. Edited by Keith G. Jones and Ian M. Randall. 285–342. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2008.

Hans Meier joined the Bruderhof in 1933. Drawing on first-hand accounts from Meier in the BHA, Adam provides a picture of early Bruderhof life, its relationship to other communities such as Werkhof in Switzerland, and its struggles under Nazism. The article also attends to the history of the community after leaving Germany and Liechtenstein, concluding with Meier’s death in 1992.

Baur, Ulrike. “Auf, laßt uns Zion bauen: Bruderhöfe in Deutschland 1920–1937” [Arise, Let Us Build Zion: Bruderhofs in Germany, 1920–1937]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 3 (1984): 7–13.

An edited transcript of a radio program on the history of the Bruderhof. This part explores the Sannerz period. See the following entries for parts two and three. Due to the nature of the text as a transcript, it is not always clear what sources Baur is drawing on.

Baur, Ulrike. “Bruderhöfe in Deutschland: Teil II” [Bruderhofs in Germany: Part II]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 1 (1985): 33–36.

An edited transcript of a radio program on the history of the Bruderhof. This part explores the early days of the Rhön Bruderhof. See the surrounding entries for parts one and three. Due to the nature of the text as a transcript, it is not always clear what sources Baur is drawing on.

Baur, Ulrike and Herbert Sorgius. “Bruderhöfe in Deutschland: Teil III” [Bruderhofs in Germany: Part III]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 3 (1985): 27–29.

The final installment of this three-part series is predominantly drawn from Herbert Sorgius’s memories and provides an unfavorable account of life at the Rhön Bruderhof. It is not clear to what extent this is conditioned by Sorgius’s negative experiences with the movement during the later years in Paraguay. See the preceding entries for parts one and two of this series.

Benzer, Steven. “Ontological Obedience: Examining Bonhoeffer’s Hermeneutics of Nonviolence in Light of the Bruderhof Community.” Paper presented to the “Bonhoeffer: Theology and Social Analysis” group, AAR, Atlanta, GA, November 22–25, 2003.

Explores similarities between the theology and practice of Bonhoeffer and the Bruderhof, with reference to Hardy Arnold’s meetings with Bonhoeffer in 1934.

Blum, Emil. “Die Neuwerkbewegung in Deutschland 1920–1933” [The Neuwerk Movement in Germany, 1920–1933]. Reformatio, no. 5 (1970): 339–52.

Blum draws on scholarship and his own experience to recount the history of the Neuwerk movement. Arnold’s roll is addressed in places.

Denée, Marguerite. “Les Bruderhöfe de 1920 à 1937: Naissance et exode d’une communauté chrétienne allemande” [The Bruderhofs from 1920 to 1937: The Birth and Exodus of a German Christian Community (French)]. Courrier communautaire international [Community Courier International] 2:2 (February 1967): 3–10.

A captivatingly written and detailed summary and review of Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together, offering praise for the community and minor critical reflections.

Durnbaugh, Donald F. “The Suppression of the Rhönbruderhof by National Socialist Authorities on 14 April 1937.” Paper presented at “Remembering for the Future II” conference, Berlin, March 13–17, 1994.

A history of the Bruderhof in Germany, focussing on the dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof under Nazism. A copy is held in the BHA.

Ebeling, Rainer. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer und Eberhard Arnold” [Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Eberhard Arnold]. In Dietrich Bonhoeffers Ringen um die Kirche: Eine Ekklesiologie im Kontext freikirchlicher Theologie [Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Struggle for the Church: An Ecclesiology in the Context of Free Church Theology]. 278–330. Gießen, Germany: Brunnen, 1996.

The most detailed treatment of the relationship between Bonhoeffer and Arnold so far, who shared many overlapping theological concerns and indirectly met each other through Arnold’s son Hardy while the latter was studying in England. Ebeling looks at this encounter, the history of the Bruderhof up until this time, and Arnold’s potential influence on Bonhoeffer, especially in regard to Bonhoeffer’s pacifism and interest in living in community.

Other writers have briefly commented on this relationship. See e.g. Clifford J. Green, “Pacifism and Tyrannicide: Bonhoeffer’s Christian Peace Ethic,” Studies in Christian Ethics 18:3 (2005): 31–47, here 36–37; Ferdinand Schlingensiepen, Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945: Martyr, Thinker, Man of Resistance, trans. Isabel Best (London: T&T Clark, 2010), 174–75; Charles Marsh, Strange Glory: A Life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (London: SPCK, 2014), 218–220, 441n103; and Gerard den Hertog, “God Waits for and Responds to Sincere Prayer and Responsible Actions: Liturgy and Ethics in Dietrich Bonhoeffer,” in Liturgy and Ethics: New Contributions from Reformed Perspectives, ed. Pieter Vos, 49–64 (Leiden: Brill, 2018), 53.

Fuchs, Manfred. “Die Bruderhofgemeinde” [The Bruderhof Church Community]. In Probleme des Wirtschaftsstils von Lebensgemeinschaften, erörtert am Beispiel der Wirtschaftsunternehmen der deutschen Jugendbewegung [Problems in the Economic Approaches of Communes, Examined through the Example of the Economic Enterprises of the German Youth Movement]. 27–35. Göttingen: Schwartz, 1957.

This chapter in Fuchs’s wider study provides a description of the Bruderhof’s economic activities, offering a brief outline of aspects such as food, clothing, and living arrangements, community of goods, and production in agriculture and horticulture. In the second part of the book, Fuchs addresses common themes and issues from his study of the different communities that arose out of the German Youth Movement.

Gerlach, Horst. “Zu Hans Meier: ‘Erinnerungen eines Bruderhöfers in CuS 1 bis 4/83’” [Regarding Hans Meier’s “Memories of a Member of the Bruderhof,” in Christ und Sozialist 1 to 4, 1983]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 3 (1984): 14–19.

A critical response to Meier, “Erinnerungen” (see memoirs, above). Gerlach revisits allegations of financial mismanagement made against the 1930s Bruderhof and rejected by Meier. Meier responds to these claims in “Das Ende des Bruderhofes”; cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof” (both below).

Gollwitzer, Helmut. “Einiges zu Eberhard Arnold und den Bruderhöfen” [A Little on Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhofs]. Neue Wege: Beiträge zu Religion und Sozialismus [New Ways: Contributions to Religion and Socialism] 82:7–8 (1988): 232–37. [Free download].

An appreciation of Arnold in the context of traditional criticisms of Anabaptists and other Schwärmer (“enthusiasts”) held by the established churches in Germany since the Reformation. Gollwitzer recalls his youthful dismissiveness of Arnold in this connection. He provides brief biographical insights and is particularly appreciative of Arnold’s opposition to military power and private property, contrasting this with the support these were given by the established churches in Arnold’s time.

Reprint in: Basileia: Festschrift für Eduard Buess. Edited by Hans Dürr and Christoph Ramstein. 117–26. Basel, Switzerland: Edition Mitenand, 1993.

Hindley, Marjorie. “‘Unerwünscht’: One of the Lesser Known Confrontations with the National Socialist State, 1933–37.” German History 11:2 (1993): 207-221. [Free download (alternative pagination)].

Marjorie Hindley (née Badham) joined the Bruderhof in England in the late 1930s. In this article, after a brief introduction regarding Arnold and the establishment of the Bruderhof, Hindley attends to the Bruderhof under Nazism, drawing on archival sources and likely supported by her familiarity with stories from eyewitnesses.

Hofheinz, Marco. “‘Franziskus in Kniebundhosen’: Der christliche Pazifismus Eberhard Arnolds als Tatzeugnis gemeinsamen Lebens (1883–1935)” [“Francis in Knee Breeches: The Christian Pacifism of Eberhard Arnold as Material Witness to the Common Life] In Christlich-theologischer Pazifismus im 20. Jahrhundert [Christian-Theological Pacifism in the 20th Century]. Edited by Marco Hofheinz and Frederike van Oorschot. 69–94. Baden-Baden, Germany: Aschendorff, 2016.

A brief biography of Arnold, followed by an analysis of his theology of pacifism. In a final critical section, Hofheinz argues that Arnold’s uncompromising pacifism is needed, alongside groups who believe that Christian participation in government bodies such as the legal system, the military, and the police is warranted.

The article has been translated into English and publication is expected in 2023.

Hüssy, Getrud [Trudi]. “In Loving Memory of Emmy Arnold: 1884–1980.” Mennonite Historical Bulletin 41:2 (April 1980): 1–3. [archive.org].

Obituary for Eberhard Arnold’s wife, Emmy, written by a Bruderhof member. It includes details of her life.

Krauß, Wolfgang. “Dokumentation: ‘Zum Schutze von Volk und Staat’” [Documentation: “For the Protection of the People and the State”]. Junge Gemeinde: Jugendblatt der Mennonitengemeinden [Young Church: Youth Journal of the Mennonite Churches], no. 3 (March 1985): 19–22.

An exploration of German Mennonite responses to the 1937 dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof under Nazism. Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” below.

Kühnert, Alfred. “Die Neuwerk-Bewegung: Neues Werk mit Pflug und Gebet” [The Neuwerk Movement: New Work with Plow and Prayer]. In Erlittene Geschichte: Bergwinkel-Studien [History Incurred: Bergwinkel Studies]. 226–36. Schlüchtern: Steinfeld, 1980.

A brief outline of the Neuwerk movement and the establishment of the community at Sannerz, followed by an overview of the two groups that arose from the split – the Bruderhof and the community at the Habertshof.

Kupisch, Karl. “Eberhard Arnold: Aus der Personalakte eines Schwärmers” [Eberhard Arnold: From the Personnel Records of an Enthusiast] Die Zeichen der Zeit 19:11 (1965): 421–425.

A brief but detailed biographical article on Arnold. Kupisch draws on his extensive knowledge of the DCSV (German student Christian movement; see Kupisch under books, above).

Lichti, James Irvin. “‘Linking Bread and Sweat’ to ‘Blut und Boden’: The Role of Stewardship Norms in the German Mennonite Response to the Dissolution of the Rhönbruderhof.” Paper presented at the Conrad Grebel College, Waterloo, Ontario, May 1990.

An examination of the work, stewardship, and finances of the Rhön Bruderhof. Lichti engages critically with Michael Horsch’s antagonistic report on the community from after Arnold’s death, as well as sources from Arnold’s lifetime. A copy is held in the BHA.

Lichti, James Irvin. “The German Mennonite Response to the Dissolution of the Rhoen-Bruderhof.” Mennonite Life 46:2 (June 1991): 10–17. [Free download].

A critical and detailed discussion of German Mennonite responses to the 1937 dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof under Nazism. Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” below.

Translated into German as: “Die Stellungnahmen deutscher Mennoniten zur Auflösung des Rhönbruderhofes in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus” [German Mennonite Reactions to the Dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof in the National Socialist Period]. Mennonitische Geschichtsblätter [Mennonite Historical Journal] 49 (1992): 73–91.

Lilie, Frank. “Jesus und niemand anderem als Jesus folgen: Eberhard Arnold (1883–1935)” [Following Jesus and No One but Jesus: Eberhard Arnold (1883–1935)]. Quatember (2000): 223–32 [Read online (unpaginated)]

A history of Arnold’s life and the Bruderhof, based on his writings and Emmy Arnold’s published memoirs (see A Joyful Pilgrimage, above).

Meier, Hans. “Das Ende des Bruderhofes (1937)” [The End of the Bruderhof (1937)]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 3 (1985): 29–36.

Meier responds to the argument made in Gerlach, “Zu Hans Meier” (above), that the Rhön Bruderhof mismanaged its finances. Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” below.

Nauerth, Thomas. “‘Alles Gute für Hitler’: Der Rhönbruderhof und das Problem der Obrigkeit nach 1933” [“Best Wishes for Hitler”: The Rhön Bruderhof and the Problem of Political Authority after 1933]. Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 30:1 (2017): 62–74.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. In this article, he takes this greeting, “Best wishes for Hitler,” as his starting point. The words appear in a letter addressed to Hitler by Arnold together with other Bruderhof members. The rest of the article explores the Bruderhof’s unique relationships with political authority during this time.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Bergpredigt und Widerstand: Die Bruderhofgemeinschaft 1933–1937” [The Sermon on the Mount and Resistance: The Bruderhof Community 1933–1937]. Paper presented at “Bergpredigt leben” [Living the Sermon on the Mount] conference, Fulda, Germany, November 2015. [academia.edu].

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. This brief but detailed overview of the period attends to the role of the Sermon on the Mount in Bruderhof practice at this time.

YouTube: [YouTube] [Conference blurb].

Nauerth, Thomas. “Hutterer und Mennoniten in Europa: Begegnungen und ‘Vergegnungen’ 1933-1937” [Hutterites and Mennonites in Europe: Encounters and ‘Misencounters,’ 1933–1937]. In Mennoniten in der NS-Zeit: Stimmen, Lebenssituationen, Erfahrungen [Mennonites in the Nazi Period: Voices, Living Conditions, Experiences]. Edited by Marion Kobelt-Groch and Astrid von Schlachta. 198–213. Weierhof, Germany: Mennonitischer Geschichtsverein, 2017.

Nauerth explores relationships between the Mennonites and the Bruderhof during the community’s time in Germany.

Published earlier in Mennonitische Geschichtsblätter, no. 73 (2016).

Nauerth, Thomas. “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof, 1936–1937: From Friend to Hostile Witness to Historical Eyewitness.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 91:2 (2017): 213–46.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. In this article, he attends to the relationship between Mennonite Michael Horsch and the Bruderhof. Initially a “dedicated friend” of the Bruderhof, Horsch later justified the Nazi dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof on the basis of the community’s alleged agricultural mismanagement and laziness. While the events addressed in this article take place not long after Arnold’s death, the text is nonetheless an important study of Bruderhof life in Germany that speaks to his legacy.

A response article disputes some of Nauerth’s analysis: Horsch, Volker. “Michael Horsch: A Victim of His Nationalist Sympathies? A Response to Thomas Nauerth.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 92:2 (2018): 299–305. An original, non-abridged German version is mentioned, but we have been unable to locate this.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Zu Gast im ‘Mittelpunkt Mitteleuropas’: Der Almbruderhof in Liechtenstein 1934–1938” [A Guest in the ‘Center of Central Europe’: The Alm Bruderhof in Liechtenstein, 1934–1938]. Historischer Verein für das Fürstentum Liechtenstein: Jahrbuch 117 (2018): 31–61.

A detailed overview of the Alm Bruderhof in Liechtenstein, accompanied by photos.

Neima, Anna. “Seeking the Kingdom of God in Rural Germany: Eberhard and Emmy Arnold’s Bruderhof.” In The Utopians: Six Attempts to Build the Perfect Society. 163–99. London: Picador, 2021.

A chapter on the origins and history of the Bruderhof, in the context of other groups throughout the world seeking community after WWI. The book was reviewed for Plough Quarterly.

Peter, Erich. “Sparhof wird durch den ‘Bruderhof’ bekannt” [Sparhof Becomes Known for the “Bruderhof”]. In 1050 Jahre Veitsteinbach [1050 Years of Veitsteinbach]. Edited by Gemeinde Kalbach. 53–65. Neuhof, Germany: Günter Vogel, 2003.

An article on the Sparhof, the land which became the Rhön Bruderhof. It provides a reasonably detailed overview of the activities and development projects undertaken during the time of the Rhön Bruderhof, as well as subsequent history. The book, about the history of Veitsteinbach, the district in which the Rhön Bruderhof was located, is rare and had a low print run. A copy is held in the BHA.

Pfeiffer, Arnold. “Gemeinde und Sozialismus bei Eberhard Arnold” [Church Community and Socialism According to Eberhard Arnold]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 4 (1975): 10–15.

A brief but detailed study of the religious socialist aspects of Arnold’s thought, with reference to some of his influences like Gustav Landauer and Andreas Ehrenpreis.

Quiring, Horst. “Die deutschen Mennoniten zur Auflösung des Rhön-Bruderhofes 1937: Eine Dokumentation im Spiegel der Korrespondenz” [The German Mennonites on the 1937 Dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof: A Documentation as Reflected in Correspondence]. Mennonitische Geschichtsblätter [Mennonite Historical Journal] 33 (1981): 23–32.

Quiring offers a range of longer and shorter quotes from German Mennonites responding to the dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof in 1937. Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” above.

Randall, Ian M. “The Communion of Saints and an Anabaptist Community: A Study of the Bruderhof.” Theological Reflections: Eastern European Journal of Theology 20:1 (2022): 59–­72. [Free download].

Randall attends to the understanding of the “Upper Church” in the Bruderhof, the body of believers in heaven. He predominantly focusses on the community during Arnold’s lifetime.

Schibilsky, Michael. “Bürgerliche Jugendbewegung: Innovation oder Regression” [Bourgeois Youth Movement: Innovation or Regression]. Recht der Jugend und des Bildungswesens [Law of Youth and Education] 23:1 (1975): 11–21.

A discussion of the beginnings of the Neuwerk movement, the establishment of Sannerz, and the splintering of the movement into three different groups – Arnold’s group remained at Sannerz and was the precursor to the Bruderhof movement.

Schmidt, Dietmar. “Bruderhof – Wagnis oder Vorbild: Aus dem linken Flügel der Reformation; Ein Versuch, nach der Bergpredigt zu leben” [Bruderhof – Venture or Exemplar: From the Left Wing of the Reformation; An Attempt to Live According to the Sermon on the Mount]. Stimme der Gemeinde [Voice of the Church Community] 11:16 (1959): 485–92.

Schmidt follows a lead from Hans Schoeps’s autobiography (see memoirs, above), and explores the Bruderhof movement’s history, with some comment throughout.

Tyldesley, Mike. “Gustav Landauer and the Bruderhof Communities.” Communal Societies 16 (1996): 23-41. [Free download].

This article provides a reasonably detailed overview of the work of anarchist Gustav Landauer and his importance in Bruderhof history, especially in Arnold’s thought.

Tyldesley, Mike. “Martin Buber and the Bruderhof Communities.” Journal of Jewish Studies 45:2 (1994): 258–272.

This article explores the relationship between Martin Buber and the Bruderhof communities in Arnold’s lifetime, as well as contact in later periods. It attends to correspondence, Arnold’s article on Buber, and the possibility of mutual intellectual influence.

Zumpe, Hans. “Die Bruderhof-Gemeinschaft” [The Bruderhof Community]. In Frei für Gott und die Menschen: Evangelische Bruder- und Schwesterschaften der Gegenwart in Selbstdarstellungen [Free for God and People: Protestant Brotherhoods and Sisterhoods of Today in Their Own Words]. Edited by Lydia Präger. 68–89. Stuttgart: Quell-Verlag, 1959.

A member at the time of writing, Hans Zumpe provides his own account of the movement’s history and life up to 1959.

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Brief Discussion and Comments

Altgelt, Erika. “Die Bruderhofbewegung kehrt nach Deutschland zurück” [The Bruderhof Movement Returns to Germany]. Quatember (1956): 35–40. [Read online (unpaginated)].

A report on the Bruderhof returning to Germany in the 1950s (when the group established the Sinntalhof). Altgelt provides a brief overview of Arnold and the movement’s history.

Balders, Günter. “Kurze Geschichte der deutschen Baptisten” [A Short History of the German Baptists]. In Ein Herr, ein Glaube, eine Taufe: 150 Jahre Baptistengemeinden in Deutschland [One Lord, One Faith, One Baptism: 150 Years of Baptist Churches in Germany]. Edited by Günter Balders. 17–167.

From p. 73, n. 99: “[Samuel Knappe’s] essay was followed by a piece by Eberhard Arnold that was more theologically discriminating…. Arnold… considered Knappe’s dichotomy – whether war was ‘of God or the devil’ – to be inadequate in substance and referred to sin as the cause of wars on the one hand, and God’s all-encompassing, loving will on the other.” And “Arnold still employs the concept of ‘more just’ with regard to the parties involved in the war.” Balders is discussing EA 15/13.

German: “Zu diesem Aufsatz erschien eine theologisch stärker differenzierende Fortsetzung von Eberhard Arnold…. Arnold… hielt Knappes Gegenüberstellung, ob der Krieg ‘von Gott oder vom Teufel’ sei, für sachlich unzureichend und verwies auf die Sünde als Ursache von Kriegen einerseits, auf den alles umfassenden Liebeswillen Gottes andererseits.” And “Arnold rechnet noch mit einer ‘gerechteren’ unter den kriegführenden Parteien.”

Benson, Lewis. Catholic Quakerism: A Vision for All Men. Philadelphia, PA: Books and Publications Committee of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1968.

A quote from Arnold is used on pp. 79–80 in support of Benson’s criticism of pietism.

Brandenburg, Hans-Christian. “Zur Geschichte des Bundes Köngener” [The History of the Köngen Association]. Jahrbuch des Archivs der Deutschen Jugendbewegung [Yearbook of the Archive of the German Youth Movement] 4 (1972): 122–27. [Read online].

Brandenburg touches on Arnold’s relationship to the Köngen Association. Cf. his book-length treatment under memoirs, above.

Breit, Rita. “Bewegung im Landesinnern: Das Jahrzehnt der Neuwerksiedlungen in der Vorrhön.” [A Movement in Inland Germany: The Decade of Neuwerk Settlements in the Vorrhön Region]. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, October 24, 1987.

A 5 pp. article on the Neuwerk movement and the Bruderhof in the 20s and 30s.

“Die integrale Genossenschaft der Bruderhöfe” [The Integral Cooperative of the Bruderhofs]. Schweiz. Konsum-Verein, no. 48 (1955), supplement (Kleine Schriften 28).

An account of Bruderhof history and later life, published as a standalone booklet.

Durnbaugh, Donald. “Relocation of the German Bruderhof to England, South America, and North America.” Communal Societies 11 (1991): 62–77.

A brief outline of Bruderhof history, with helpful citations.

“‘Edelkommunisten und Pazifisten’: Im Deutschen Reich ‘unerwünscht’” [‘Idealistic Communists and Pacifists’: ‘Unwanted’ in the German Reich]. Fuldaer Zeitung, October 30, 1984, 13.

A short history of the Bruderhof under Nazism.

Friedmann, Robert. “Fifty Years Society of Brothers (1920-1970): Their Story and Their Books.” Mennonite Life 25:4 (1970): 159-64. [Free download].

A brief outline of Bruderhof history, with a focus on publishing work.

Gavron, Daniel. “The Other Kibbutzniks.” The Jerusalem Post Magazine, February 5, 1988, 6. [archive.org (text only)].

Gavron reports on a Bruderhof visit to Israel, with minor references to the movement’s history.

Gerlach, Horst. “Hutterer und Bruderhöfer: Wechselbeziehungen zwischen der Pfalz und anderen Gebieten von der Reformation bis zur Gegenwart” [Hutterites and Bruderhofers: Interrelations between the Palatinate and Other Areas, from the Reformation to the Present Day]. In Die Hutterischen Täufer: Geschichtlicher Hintergrund und handwerkliche Leistung [The Hutterian Anabaptists: Historical Background and Artisan Work]. Edited by Bavarian National Museum. 45–53. Weierhof, Germany: Mennonitische Forschungsstelle, 1985.

The relationship between the Bruderhof and the Hutterites in treated on pp. 50–51 (notes on p. 53).

Giese, Dekan. “Habertshof und Neuwerk auf Schlüchterner Boden” [Habertshof and Neuwerk on Schlüchtern Soil]. Gemeindebrief der Evangelischen Kirchengemeinde Schlüchtern [Church Newsletter of the Schlüchtern Protestant Church Community] (November–January 1981–1982).

A short article on the history of the Habertshof and Neuwerk movement, with some references to Arnold and Sannerz.

Gleysteen, Jan. “A Brotherhood of Typesetters.” Festival Quarterly (Lancaster, PA) 7:1 (February–April 1980): 28.

Gleysteen comments on the relationship between Rudolf Koch, Eberhard Arnold, and publishing operations at Sannerz. No sources are cited in this connection.

Gross, Leonard. “Editorial.” Mennonite Historical Bulletin 49:7 (1980): 3. [archive.org].

Gross explains the rationale for including Hans Meier’s account of the 1937 dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof under Nazism. Among other things, he writes, “Since scholarship has understood the dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof primarily through Horsch’s eyes, it seems only fair that the Society of Brothers’ experience, given their own understanding of events, be allowed to surface, complementary to–and at certain crucial points of the story, a corrective to–the Michael Horsch account of 1937.” See Meier, “The Dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof in Germany,” under memoirs, above. Cf. Nauerth, “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof,” under in-depth articles, above.

Hardy, Dennis. “Sacred Places.” In Utopian England: Community Experiments, 1900–1945. 163–202. London: E & FN Spon, 2000. [Free download].

A brief overview of the Bruderhof during Arnold’s lifetime is provided on pp. 182–85. The chapter situates the Bruderhof alongside other Christian communities in England at the time, and the rest of the book looks at other forms of community in the period, providing a comparative context for Bruderhof origins.

Hindley, Marjorie. “The Bruderhof Communities.” Tishrei (Swansea, Wales) 2:4 (summer 1994): 25–31.

A Bruderhof member gives an overview of the movement’s beliefs and practice, with some reference to its history.

Hinton, Jeanne. “Darvell Bruderhof.” In Communities: The Stories and Spirituality of Twelve European Communities. 45–59. Guildford, Surrey, UK: Eagle, 1993.

Contains brief memories of the Bruderhof in Germany from Kathleen Hasenberg and Stanley Fletcher, as well as reference to Eberhard Arnold and his writings (see especially pp. 49–51).

Hofheinz, Marco. “‘Selig sind die Friedfertigen’: Die Bergpredigt und der radikale Pazifismus der Täufer und Neutäufer in Geschichte und Gegenwart” [“Blessed are the Peacemakers”: The Sermon on the Mount and the Radical Pacifism of the Anabaptists and Neo-Anabaptists in History and the Present]. Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 31:1 (2018): 245–71.

A few pages on Arnold’s pacifism (pp. 253–58), based on Hofheinz’s earlier article (see above). The article attends to the Anabaptist pursuit of peace in the context of the Sermon on the Mount, looking at Arnold alongside the Schleitheim Confession and John Howard Yoder.

Howlett, David J. “The Bruderhof’s ‘System of Objects’: A Case Study in Material Culture and Christian Praxis, 1920–2001.” Communal Societies 26:2 (2006): 19–41.

Howlett draws on cultural theorist Jean Baudrillard’s concept of a “system of objects,” a world driven by the consumption of commodities, to understand the role of material objects in Bruderhof life. The main focus of the article is on Bruderhof life in the 1990s, though there is some discussion of early history, as well as quotes from Arnold.

Jany, Berit. “Coming Home: The Bruderhof Returns to Germany.” Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies 1:2 (2013): 31–47. [Free download].

A study of the Bruderhof’s post-war relationships with Germany and attempts to re-establish there. Some reference to Bruderhof history during Arnold’s time.

The article title page has 2019 instead of 2013. This is either a mistake or refers to the date of digitization.

Janzen, Rod. “The Hutterites and the Bruderhof: The Relationship Between an Old Older [sic] Religious Society and a Twentieth-Century Communal Group.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 79:4 (2005): 505–44. [Free download].

Janzen attends to the relationship between the Hutterites and the Bruderhof, who were in communion from 1930–1955 and 1974–1995. The relationship between the two groups during Arnold’s lifetime is explored on pp. 509–12.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. “Introduction.” In Communes: Creating and Managing the Collective Life. Edited by Rosabeth Moss Kanter. 15–25. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.

Passing references to the Bruderhof situate the group within the wider context of modern community movements. The book includes an excerpt from Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together (see under A Joyful Pilgrimage, above).

Kiefer, Willy. “Der Sparhof: Bauernsiedlung und Bruderhof” [The Sparhof: Farm Settlement and Bruderhof]. Rhönwacht: Zeitschrift des Rhönklubs [Rhön Sentry: Magazine of the Rhön Club], no. 1 (January 1995): 18–19.

A brief history of the Sparhof, the land which became the Rhön Bruderhof, and of the Bruderhof movement.

Abridged and republished as: “In ländlicher Abgeschiedenheit leben wie die Urchristen” [Living in Rural Seclusion Like the Early Christians]. Jahrbuch des Landkreises Fulda (1997): 249–252.

Kühnert, Alfred. “Schlupfwinkel und Bruderhof: Der Sparhof erlebte Wilddiebe und eine Glaubensgemeinschaft” [Hideout and Bruderhof: The Sparhof Witnessed Poachers and a Faith Community]. Jahrbuch des Landkreises Fulda [Yearbook of the Fulda District] 6 (1979): 69–72.

A short overview of the history of the Sparhof, the land which became the Rhön Bruderhof, from ancient times to the Bruderhof’s expulsion in 1937.

A slightly longer form of the article appeared in Fuldaer Zeitung (?), November 3, 1978, 14–15.

Lemhöfer, Lutz. “Eberhard Arnold und die alternativ-christliche Gemeinschaft der Bruderhöfe” [Eberhard Arnold and the Alternative-Christian Community of the Bruderhofs] Zeitschrift für Religions- und Weltanschauungsfragen 66:9 (2003): 341–47. [Free download].

A brief treatment of Arnold and Bruderhof history.

Lichti, James Irvin. “German Mennonites, Economics and the State.” In Anabaptist/Mennonite Faith and Economics. Edited by Calvin Redekop, Victor A. Krahn, and Samuel J. Steiner. 83–110. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994.

Meier, Hans, Erhard Griese, and Arnold Pfeiffer. “Diskussion über Eberhard Arnold und die Bruderhöfe” [Discussion about Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhofs]. Christ und Sozialist 13:1 (January 1989): 32–38.

While the focus on this discussion is on the later Bruderhof movement, reference is made to Arnold and his writings at some places throughout.

Melancon, Sharon. “Children’s Education at the Bruderhof.” Communities: Journal of Cooperation 76 (May 1990): 23–27.

A Bruderhof member provides an overview of Bruderhof pedagogical theory and practice, with minor references to its roots in Arnold’s thought.

Moore, Charles E. “Radical, Communal, Bearing Witness: The Church as God’s Mission in Bruderhof Perspective and Practice.” Missio Dei: A Journal of Missional Theology and Praxis 9:2 (2018). [Read online].

Charles Moore is a member of the Bruderhof. A few paragraphs summarize Bruderhof history.

Mott, Michael. “Zu spät für den Schutz des ‘Rhönbruderhofs’” [Too Late to Preserve the Rhön Bruderhof]. Fuldaer Zeitung, November 23, 1995, 12.

Written concerning the upcoming demolition of the Kinderhaus at the Rhön Bruderhof, the article provides a history of the site.

Republished with minor changes and quote marks removed from title: “Zu spät für den Schutz des Rhönbruderhofs.” Kinzigtal-Nachrichten, December 6, 1995, 7.

Mow, D. Merrill. “Community Living in Our Time: An Account of the Bruderhof Communities.” Brethren Life and Thought 1:5 (1956): 43–52.

A brief recounting of Bruderhof history, followed by an exposition of Bruderhof beliefs and practices in the mid-50s.

Müller, Eckhard. “Eine Hutterische Bruderhof-Gemeinschaft” [A Hutterian Bruderhof Community]. In Jahrbuch Ökologie 1994 [Ecology Yearbook 1994]. Edited by Günter Altner et al. 297–302. Munich: Beck, 1993.

A cursory overview of Bruderhof history is given on pp. 298–99.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Das große Erwachen: der erste Weltkrieg als pazifistische Lebenswende” [The Great Awakening: The First World War as a Pacifist Turning Point]. In Frieden im Niemandsland: Die Minderheit der christlichen Botschafter im Ersten Weltkrieg [Peace in No-Man’s-Land: The Minority of Christian Ambassadors in the First World War]. Edited by Peter Bürger. 211–26. Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand, 2021.

Nauerth surveys the turn to pacifism among many people in the wake of WWI. Arnold’s story briefly appears on pp. 221–23.

Randall, Ian M. “An Anabaptist Witness: The Bruderhof Community.” Anabaptism Today 3:1 (2021): 22–35. [Free download].

Provides a brief account of Arnold and Bruderhof history, though the main focus of the article is on the Bruderhof in England, a period not long after Arnold’s death.

Originally published in: Baptistic Theologies 9:2 (2017): 19–36.

Schmidt, Rainer. “‘Abstecher ins Traumland der Anarchie’: Siedlungsgemeinschaften der deutschen Jugendbewegung” [“Detour into the Dreamland of Anarchy”: Settlement Communities in the German Youth Movement]. In Alles gehört allen: Das Experiment Gütergemeinschaft vom 16. Jahrhundert bis heute [Everything Belongs to Everyone: The Experiment of Community of Goods from the 16th Century to Today]. Edited by Hans-Jürgen Goertz. 188–207. Munich: Beck, 1984.

Schmidt provides a summary paragraph on the Bruderhof on p. 206. Otherwise, the rest of the chapter provides an overview of the communitarian impulse in the German Youth Movement that led to the establishment of other similar settlements in the countryside. The Bruderhof traces its origins to this same impulse. The focus of the following chapter is on later Bruderhof life in the USA: Gizycki, Horst von. “Von den Spielzeugmachern des Bruderhofs bis zum Kibbuz: Sozialpsychologische Aspekte gelebte Utopien” [From the Bruderhof’s Toy-Makers to the Kibbutz: Social-Psychological Aspects of Lived Utopias, pp. 208–32].

Spielhagen, Frances R. and Bruce S. Cooper. “Christian Community in Action: Bruderhof Schools.” Journal of Research on Christian Education 16:1 (2007): 65–81.

An overview of Bruderhof education, with some reference to Arnold and early Bruderhof history.

Spielhagen, Frances R. and Bruce S. Cooper. “Forming Social Capital: The Bruderhof Schools.” The Journal of Education 183:2 (2002): 49–62.

An overview of Bruderhof education, with scattered references to Arnold throughout.

Spielhagen, Frances R., and Bruce S. Cooper. “The Bruderhof Schools: Educating the Whole Child in Community.” Private School Monitor 24:1 (2002): 1–11. [Free download].

A study of the Bruderhof’s pedagogical commitment to educating the “whole child,” which goes back to Arnold.

Wardle, Francis. “Alternatives… Bruderhof Education: Outdoor School.” Young Children 50:3 (March 1995): 68–73.

Wardle taught at a Bruderhof kindergarten for one year. This article explores Bruderhof pedagogy, with minor reference to its roots in Arnold’s thought and in that of other members going back to the movement’s early years.

Wenger, John C. “Question Box.” Mennonite Historical Bulletin 1:1 (April 1940) [p. 6 (unpaginated)]. [archive.org].

A very brief history of both the original Hutterites and the Bruderhof movement, written on the cusp of the Bruderhof migrating to Paraguay.

Winn, Christian T. Collins. “Introduction.” In Christoph Friedrich Blumhardt, The Gospel of God’s Reign. xix–xxix. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014.

Winn briefly addresses Arnold’s interest in the Blumhardts and his associated publishing ventures on pp. xxvii–xxix.

Wright, Melanie J. “The Nature and Significance of Relations between the Historic Peace Churches and Jews during and after the Shoah.” In Christian-Jewish Relations through the Centuries. Edited by Stanley E. Porter and Brook W. R. Pearson. 400–425. London: Continuum, 2000.

An overview of relationships between historic peace churches (here: Quakers, Mennonites, and Hutterites, i.e., the Bruderhof) and Jews during and after Nazi persecution (the Shoah). The section on the Bruderhof during Arnold’s time is brief and not overly detailed but nonetheless informative (pp. 412–15).

Wünsch, D. Georg. “Die ‘Hutterischen Brüder’: Ein Versuch als Christen christlich zu leben, in alter und neuer Zeit” [The ‘Hutterian Brethren’: An Attempt at Living as Christians in a Christian Way, in Early and More Recent Times]. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], nos. 5–7 (1958): 2–8.

Wünsch touches on the Bruderhof’s history in Germany on pp. 5–6.

Wurm, Shalom. “Bruderhof.” In Das Leben in den historischen Kommunen [Life in Historical Communes]. 305–14. Cologne: Bund-Verlag, 1977.

A short account of Bruderhof movement and its history up to the present (1977).

Yoder, John H. “Discipleship as a Missionary Strategy.” Church Life 8:1 (1955): 26–31. [Free download]

A critical reflection on the Bruderhof and discipleship, engaging with themes that go back to Arnold.

Zumpe, Hans. “Die hutterischen Brüder“ [The Hutterian Brothers]. Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte [Journal of Religious and Intellectual History] 12:4 (1960): 323–45.

Zumpe briefly recounts Bruderhof history during Arnold’s time on pp. 334–36.

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Reviews

Denton, Clifford. Review of fifteen books by Plough Publishing House. Tishrei (Swansea, Wales) 2:4 (summer 1994): 73–76.

A number of Arnold titles are touched on in the review, though the text does not go into depth with regard to any of the books reviewed.

Ewald, Günter. Review of Salz und Licht, by Eberhard Arnold. Christ und Sozialist [Christian and Socialist], no. 1 (1983): 38–40.

Häselbarth, J. Review of Salz und Licht, by Eberhard Arnold. Swanbergbrief (Communität Casteller Ring), no. 3 (1982): 7–8.

Lezzi, Eva. Review of Am Anfang war die Liebe, by Eberhard Arnold. Neue Wege 81:11 (1987): 348. [Free download].

Review of a later German edition of Arnold’s The Early Christians.

Loewen, Esko. “Bruderhof Beginnings.” Review of Torches Together, by Emmy Arnold. Mennonite Life 28:1 (March 1973): 29. [Free download].

Schmidt, Steven G. Review of God’s Revolution, edited by Hutterian Society of Brothers and John Howard Yoder. Mennonite Life 40:1 (March 1985): 31. [Free download].

Studer, Gerald C. Review of Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church-Community from His Life and Writings, by Eberhard Arnold. Mennonite Historical Bulletin 29:1 (January 1968): 6–7. [archive.org].

Studer, Gerald C. Review of Else von Hollander: January 1932, by Eberhard Arnold. Mennonite Historical Bulletin 35:4 (October 1974): 6. [archive.org].

Studer, Gerald C. Review of God’s Revolution: The Witness of Eberhard Arnold, edited by the Hutterian Society of Brothers and John Howard Yoder. Mennonite Historical Bulletin 46:3 (July 1985): 7. [archive.org].

Studer, Gerald C. Review of Salt and Light, by Eberhard Arnold. Mennonite Historical Bulletin 29:2 (April 1968): 7–8. [archive.org].

Studer, Gerald C. Review of The Early Christians, by Eberhard Arnold. Mennonite Historical Bulletin 42:2 (April 1981): 7. [archive.org].

Studer, Gerald C. Review of The Early Christians, by Eberhard Arnold. Mennonite Life 25:4 (October 1970): 191–92. [Free download].

Snyder, Graydon F. Review of The Early Christians, by Eberhard Arnold. Brethren Life and Thought 16:1 (winter 1971): 62–64.

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Encyclopedia Articles

Arnold, E. C. H. (Hardy). “Alm Bruderhof (Liechtenstein).” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. [Read online].

Adapted from the original: “Almbruderhof.” In The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Volume 1. A–C. 64. Edited by Harold S. Bender and C. Henry Smith. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1955. [archive.org].

Arnold, E. C. H. (Hardy). “Arnold, Eberhard (1883–1935).” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. [Read online].

Originally: “Eberhard Arnold, 1883–1939 [sic.]: A Short Biography.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 25:3 (1951): 219–21 [Arnold died in 1935]. Slightly revised reprint: “Arnold, Eberhard.” The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Volume 1. A–C. 162–64. Edited by Harold S. Bender and C. Henry Smith. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1955. [archive.org].

Arnold, E. C. H. (Hardy). “Rhön Bruderhof (Hessen, Germany).” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. [Read online].

Adapted from the original: “Rhönbruderhof.” In The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Volume 4. O–Z, Supplement. 322–23. Edited by Harold S. Bender and C. Henry Smith. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1959.

“Arnold, Emmy (von Hollander) 1884–.” In Contemporary Authors: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Current Authors and Their Works. Volumes 23–24. Edited by Barbara Harte and Carolyn Riley. 20. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company, 1970.

Arnold, Heini. “Arnold, Eberhard, 1883­–1935.” In The Brethren Encyclopedia. Volume 1. A–J. 56. Edited by Donald Durnbaugh. Philadelphia, PA: Brethren Encyclopedia, 1983. [archive.org].

Arnold, Heini. “Hutterian Society of Brothers.” In The Brethren Encyclopedia. Volume 1. A–J. 639–41. Edited by Donald Durnbaugh. Philadelphia, PA: Brethren Encyclopedia, 1983. [archive.org].

Baum, Markus. “Eberhard Arnold.” In Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon [Biographical-Bibliographical Church Encyclopedia]. Vol. 19. Nordhausen, Germany: Bautz, 2001.

“Der Bruderhof.” Widerstand!? Evangelische Christinnen und Christen im Nationalsozialismus [Resistance!? Protestant Christians under National Socialism]. [Read online].

Much of the website is also available in English. At the time of publishing this bibliography, the area on the Bruderhof was still only available in German.

Dunkel, Daniela. “Arnold, Eberhard.” Religion Past and Present: Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion. Edited by Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning, Bernd Janowski, and Eberhard Jüngel. Vol. 1. A–Bhu. 395. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

Hilbe, Herbert. “Almbruderhof.” Last updated 31 December 2011. In Historisches Lexikon des Fürstentums Liechtenstein [Historical Encyclopedia of the Principality of Liechtenstein] (online). [Read online].

Print: “Almbruderhof.” In Historisches Lexikon des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. Edited by Arthur Brunhart. Vol. 1. A bis L. 13. Zurich: Chronos, 2013.

Hillerbrand, Hans J. “Arnold, Eberhard (1883–1935).” The Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Edited by Hans J. Hillerbrand. Vol. 1. A–C. 170–71. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Kautz, Heinrich. “Arnold, Eberhard.” In Neue Deutsche Biographie [New German Biography]. Volume 1. Aachen–Behaim. 384–85. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1953. [Read online].

Lichti, James Irvin. “Rhönbruderhof.” Last updated 23 May 2020. Mennonitisches Lexikon (MennLex) [Mennonite Encyclopedia]. [Read online].

Maendel, Emmy. “Bruderhof Communities.” Last updated August 2017. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. [Read online].

The much shorter, original print version has been digitized and included at the same address.

Melton, J. Gordon. “Arnold, Eberhard.” In Biographical Dictionary of American Cult and Sect Leaders. 12–14. New York: Garland, 1986. [archive.org].

Pfeiffer, Arnold. “Religiöse Sozialisten” [Religious Socialists]. In Handbuch der deutschen Reformbewegungen 1880–1933 [Handbook of German Reform Movements, 1880–1933]. Edited by Diethart Kerbs and Jürgen Reulecke. 523–36. Wuppertal: Hammer 1998.

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Journals, Databases, and Resource Collections

Delpher. [Website].

An extensive online archive of Dutch newspapers and other texts. The 1937 Bruderhof migration from Germany to England through the Netherlands was heavily reported on in Dutch media. Using a search term like hutersch* or huttersch* (i.e. “Hutterite” in English), the kranten (newspaper) collection shows something of the extent of media interest in this event.

eLiechtensteinensia. [Website].

Provides free access to thousands of full-text, searchable image scans relating to the country of Liechtenstein. The majority of material mentioning Eberhard Arnold and/or the Bruderhof is dated between 1934 and 1938, and mostly appears in newspapers.

Karl Barth-Archiv. [Website].

The website for the archive of Barth’s literary estate and personal library. Arnold turns up in a few sources that can be viewed online, though queries can be directed to the archive itself for more comprehensive results. Users can also search Barth’s Gesamtausgabe (Complete Works) in The Digital Karl Barth Library (subscription only).

Mennonite Digitized Periodicals and Archives. [Website].

Links to various Mennonite periodicals and digital archives, many published during the time of the Rhön and Alm Bruderhofs.

Monatshefte der deutschen Freunde [German Friends Monthly]. Leipzig; later Berlin.

Formerly: Mitteilungen für die Freunde des Quäkertums in Deutschland. Later: Quäker: Zeitschrift der deutschen Freunde. A periodical of the German Quakers, James Irvin Lichti lists a number of articles between 1927 and 1937 that engage Bruderhof history. See his Houses on the Sand, 150.

Neue Wege: Blätter für religiose Arbeit [New Ways: Journal for Religious Work]. Zurich. [Free access].

Founded in 1906, Neue Wege is still running today. References to Arnold, Sannerz, and the Bruderhof occasionally appear between 1922 and 1935, under Leonhard Ragaz’s editorialship. See especially Ragaz’s obituary for Arnold in 1935: “Von der Gemeinde der Verewigten” [The Church Community of the Immortalized]. Neue Wege 29:12 (1935): 638–39.

The Plough: Towards the Coming Order. Ashton Keynes, UK; Bridgnorth, UK.

Forerunner of today's Plough Quarterly, The Plough regularly published excerpts from Arnold's talks and writings, all of which will eventually be made available in our digital archive. Publishing ceased in 1940 due to the war and did not recommence until 1953, under the new subtitle, The Quarterly of the Bruderhof Communities. The quarterly came to an end in 1957.

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Forewords, Introductions, and Afterwords

The majority of published primary sources contain forewords and/or introductions relating to Arnold’s life and thought. While most of the following are purely introductory in nature, some of them include insights or details that may be of interest to researchers, especially when written by or in conversation with Bruderhof members.

Arnold, Hardy. “Introduction.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold. Seeking for the Kingdom of God: Origins of the Bruderhof Communities. Edited by Heini and Annemarie Arnold. ix–xxi. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. [archive.org].

Arnold, Hardy. “Postscript.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold. Seeking for the Kingdom of God: Origins of the Bruderhof Communities. Edited by Heini and Annemarie Arnold. 273–84. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. [archive.org].

Arnold, Heini. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Talks and Writings on the Sermon on the Mount. xi–xviii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1986. [archive.org].

German: “Einführung.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salz und Licht: Über die Bergpredigt. 11–15. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1982. [archive.org].

Arnold, Johann Christoph. “Introduction.” In Johann Christoph Arnold, ed. Eberhard Arnold: Writings Selected. 7–31. Modern Spiritual Masters. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011.

Originally: Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2000.

Dahlke, H. Otto. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. v–vi. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. [archive.org].

Domer, Richard E. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Talks and Writings on the Sermon on the Mount. vii–xix. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1967. [archive.org].

“Einführung.” In Eberhard Arnold. Leben im Licht: Über Gemeinschaft, Gerechtigkeit und Liebe [Life in the Light: On Community, Justice, and Love]. ix–xv. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

Farina, John. “Preface: Twentieth Century Apocalyptic.” In Eberhard Arnold, War: A Call to the Inner Land. 1–8. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 1987. [archive.org].

Gross, Leonard. “Reclaiming the Hutterian Vision.” In Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. xv–xviii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. [archive.org].

Hauerwas, Stanley. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, God’s Revolution: Justice, Community, and the Coming Kingdom. vii–xiii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2021. [Free download].

Hildel, Winifred and Miriam Mathis. “Foreword.” In Children's Education in Community: The Basis of Bruderhof Education. Edited and translated by Winifred Hildel and Miriam Mathis. ix–xi. Walden, NY: Plough, 2017.

Hirsch, Marie. “Die Bewegung des Neuwerk: Kurzchronik” [The Neuwerk Movement: A Brief History]. In Die deutsche Jugendbewegung 1920 bis 1933: Die bündische Zeit [The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933: The Bündische Period]. Edited by Werner Kindt. 633–35. Düsseldorf: Diederich, 1974.

Reprinted in: Dokumente evangelischer Jugendbünde: Wandlungen zwischen zwei Weltkriegen [Documents of the Protestant Youth Associations: Transformations between Two World Wars]. Edited by Udo Smidt. 176–79. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk, 1975.

Hostetler, John A. “Introduction.” In Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. ix–xiv. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. [archive.org].

Hutterian Brethren. “Editors’ Preface.” In Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. vii–viii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. [archive.org].

Linse, Ulrich. Introduction to “Anarcho-religiöse Siedlung: Sannerz” [Anarcho-Religious Settlement: Sannerz]. In Zurück, o Mensch, zur Mutter Erde: Landkommunen in Deutschland 1890–1933 [Back, O Man, to Mother Earth: Rural Communes in Germany, 1890–1933]. Edited by idem. 221–25. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1983.

Linse provides a historical overview of the Bruderhof from its Sannerz days to the present (1983). The rest of the chapter and the following one go to p. 267 and contain primary sources relating to the Sannerz period (see under literature written by Arnold, as well as period literature, above). The introductions to the two following chapters (241–44; 268–72) touch on Arnold’s relationship to two other communities: the Habertshof and the Neu-Sonnefelder Jugend.

Moltmann, Jürgen. “Foreword.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Living the Sermon on the Mount. ix–xii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014. [Free download].

Print: 1998. [archive.org]. German: “Vorwort.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salz und Licht: Über die Bergpredigt. 7–9. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1982. [archive.org].

Moltmann, Jürgen. “Vorwort.” In Eberhard Arnold. Leben im Licht: Über Gemeinschaft, Gerechtigkeit und Liebe [Life in the Light: On Community, Justice, and Love]. vii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

Moody, Doug. “Foreword.” In Eberhard Arnold, Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart and Soul of the Bible. ix–xiv. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976.

Moody, Douglas A. “Preface to the English Edition.” In Eberhard Arnold, ed. The Early Christians: After the Death of the Apostles. ix–xii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1970. [archive.org].

Pennington, Basil. “Foreword.” In Eberhard Arnold and Thomas Merton, Why We Live in Community. ix–xv. Walden, NY: Plough, 2017. [Free download].

Earlier edition: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1995. [archive.org].

Perkins, Spencer and Chris Rice. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. vii–xi. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. [archive.org].

Pfeiffer, Arnold. “Eberhard Arnold und der Weg des Bruderhof-Lebens” (Einführung) [Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhof Way of Life (Introduction)]. In Arnold Pfeiffer, ed. Religiöse Sozialisten. 201–12. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Walter, 1976.

Plough. “Background.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold, Love Letters. 1–12. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. [Free download].

The original letters have not yet been uploaded to our digital archive.

Plough. “Epilogue.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. 73–75. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

Adapted from the epilogue in: Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. 69–72. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. [archive.org].

Plough. “Epilogue.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold, Love Letters. 293–301. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. [Free download].

Plough. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Poems and Rhymed Prayers. 3–4. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. [Free download].

Originally in published on pp. ix–xiii of the 2003 edition. [archive.org].

Plough. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Living the Sermon on the Mount. xiii–xix. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014. [Free download].

Print: 1998. [archive.org].

Plough. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Early Anabaptists. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1984. [archive.org].

Adapted from: “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, “On the History of the Baptizer Movement in Reformation Times.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 43:3 (1969): 213–233, at 213–14.

Plough. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel. vii–viii. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1999. [archive.org].

Plough. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel. Volume 1. The Inner Life. xi–xiii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2019. [Free download].

The same preface is included in all five volumes of Inner Land. [Free download].

Plough. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, ed. The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. vii–viii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. [Free download].

Wiser, Arthur. “Introduction.” In Love and Marriage in the Spirit: Talks and Writings by Eberhard Arnold. ix–xviii. Edited by the Society of Brothers. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1965. [archive.org].

Yoder, John Howard. “Eberhard Arnold and His Times.” In Eberhard Arnold, God’s Revolution: Justice, Community, and the Coming Kingdom. xv–xxxii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2021. [Free download].

Original: “Introduction.” In God’s Revolution: The Witness of Eberhard Arnold. Edited by the Hutterian Society of Brothers and John Howard Yoder. 5–22. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist, 1984. [archive.org].

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Popular-Level Literature and Multimedia

Alton, David. Signs of Contradiction: Twelve Outstanding People Who Changed Our World. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1996. [archive.org (incomplete)].

A brief look at the historical relationship between the Catholic Church, the Hutterites, and the Bruderhof can be found on pp. 224–27.

Baum, Markus. “Eberhard Arnold und die Bergpredigt” [Eberhard Arnold and the Sermon on the Mount]. Respect: Christentum / Kultur / Menschenwürde [Respect: Christianity, Culture, Human Dignity] 2 (spring 2008): 16–22.

Baum, Markus. “Vom Militärkutscher zum Pazifisten: Eberhard Arnold und sein Weg zu Friedfertigkeit und Feindesliebe” [From Supporter of the Military to Pacifist: Eberhard Arnold and His Journey to Peacefulness and Love of Enemies]. Zivil: Zeitschrift für Frieden und Gewaltfreiheit [Civilian: Journal for Peace and Freedom from Violence] 30:3 (summer 2000): 39.

“Die Bruderhöfe” [The Bruderhofs]. Neuwerk-Bote 27 (1958): 70–71.

Following the establishment of the Bruderhof’s Sinntalhof community in Germany in 1955, this article briefly recounts the movement’s history and beliefs.

Dürr, Hans. “Gegen den Strom: Die Gemeinschaft der Bruderhöfe” [Against the Current: The Community of the Bruderhofs]. Pack’s! Das christliche Magazin für Musik, Kunst und Literatur [Grab It! The Christian Magazine for Music, Art, and Literature] 5:13 (June 1985): 4–6.

An article on the history and current life (1985) of the Bruderhof.

Ellsberg, Robert. “Eberhard Arnold, Founder of the Bruderhof (1883-1935).” In All Saints: Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses for Our Time. 508­–510. New York: Crossroad, 1997. [archive.org].

Fishler, Barry. “Commune Living: The Bruderhof.” Mother Earth News, November 1971. [Read online (unpaginated)].

Foster, Richard J. “The Perpetual Flame of Devotion.” In Eberhard Arnold and Richard J. Foster. The Prayer God Answers. Translated by Eileen Robertshaw et al. 43–69. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. [Free download].

Gleysteen, Jan. Mennonite Tourguide to Western Europe. Scottdale, PA: Herald, 1984. [archive.org].

See p. 192 on the Alm Bruderhof in Liechtenstein.

Jackson, Dave and Neta. Living Together in a World Falling Apart: A Handbook of Christian Community. Second edition. Carol Stream, IL: Creation House, 2009.

A classic in the Christian communitarian movement, the Jacksons provide an annotated bibliography with comments on the value of some of Arnold’s books for community living (pp. 298–300, 304).

First edition: 1974.

Larson, Peter. “Inside the Bruderhof.” Prism: America’s Alternative Evangelical Voice 10:6 (November–December 2003): 22–25.

Merton, Thomas. Thomas Merton in Alaska: The Alaskan Conferences, Journals, and Letters. New York: New Directions, 1989.

A collection of previously unpublished work by Thomas Merton. Arnold’s “Why We Live in Community” is discussed on pp. 102–4, 108–12. These excerpts also appear in the book, Why We Live in Community, with some changes. See above, under literature written by Arnold.

Moore, Charles E. “‘Our Garden Must Be God’s Garden’: The Bruderhof Sought a Life in Harmony with God and Nature.” Christian History 119 (2016): 34–36. [Free download].

Morse, Flo. “The Society of Brothers: Love and Marriage.” In Yankee Communes: Another American Way. 151–78. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971.

A retelling of Bruderhof history, probably based on Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together, followed by a description of contemporary Bruderhof life.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Eberhard Arnold.” In Themenjahr 2020: Gewagt! Mündig leben [2020 Theme: Daring to Live Maturely]. 58–59. Frankfurt: 500 Jahre Täuferbewegung 2025 e.V., 2020. [Free download].

Offenes Wort: Monatsschrift über christliches Leben in Schule, Familie und Gesellschaft [Open Word: Monthly Bulletin on Christian Life in School, Family, and Society] 19:1 (1990).

This issue of Offenes Wort contains multiple articles relating to the Bruderhof, with minor references to the movement’s history.

Rice, Judith. “Hutterians.” History Today 44:7 (July 1994): 8–10.

Satlow, Bernt. “Zeugnis und Zeichen für die kommende Herrschaft Gottes: Nachträglich zu Eberhard Arnolds 100. Geburtstag” [Witness and Sign for the Coming Reign of God: Belated Wishes for Eberhard Arnold’s 100th Birthday] Standpunkt 11:11 (1983): 291–292.

Siepmann, Heinzfried. “Eberhard Arnold und die christlichen Bruderhöfe” [Eberhard Arnold and the Christian Bruderhofs]. In Brüder und Genossen: Ansätze für einen genossenschaftlichen Gemeindeaufbau [Brothers and Comrades: Approaches to Building the Church Cooperatively]. 264–76 [notes: 291–92]. Cologne: Rheinland, 1987.

Spooner, Jack. “Religious Socialism Works in the Bruderhof.” Religious Socialism: The Journal for People of Faith and Socialism 16:1 (spring 1992): 3–4, 16.

Susman, Margarete. “Eberhard Arnold.” Translated by Kathleen Hasenberg. Bruderhof website. [Free download].

Original German in: Neue Wege: Blätter für den Kampf der Zeit [New Ways: Journal for the Struggle of the Time] 51:8 (1957): 230–35. [Free download].

Thompson, Barbara. “The Challenge of Brotherhood.” Christianity Today, March 15, 1985, 22–27.

An interview with Bruderhof members, with references to the movement’s history.

“Vom Gemeinschaftsleben in einer Lebensgemeinschaft” [Community Life in a Live-In Community]. Offenes Wort: Monatsschrift über christliches Leben in Schule, Familie und Gesellschaft [Open Word: Monthly Bulletin on Christian Life in School, Family, and Society] 15:9 (September 1986): 3–24.

A collection of pieces on Bruderhof life, with reference to the movement’s history and quotes from Arnold.

Walters, Kerry, and Robin Jarrell. “Eberhard Arnold.” In Blessed Peacemakers: 365 Extraordinary People Who Changed the World. 207. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2013.

Zimmerman, Chris. “The Bruderhof: Community in the Spirit of the Sermon on the Mount and of the Radical Reformation.” Talk at Stadthaus Wittenberg, November 3, 2017. [YouTube].

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