Bibliography

Bibliography of literature by and about Eberhard Arnold

This bibliography aims to be reasonably comprehensive for the sake of aiding further research on Eberhard Arnold. Entries are included at the discretion of the editors, and their appearance here does not mean that Plough or the Bruderhof endorses their content. Some entries include annotations and details of alternative editions that will display when clicking on them.

Contents

1. Published Primary Sources
         • Literature Written by Arnold
         • Literature Written During Arnold’s Lifetime
                  ○ Book Reviews
         • Memoirs
2. Scholarly Literature
         • Books and Theses
         • Chapters and Articles
         • Encyclopedia Articles
         • Comments
3. Databases
4. Forewords and Introductions
5. Popular-Level Literature

Published Primary Sources

Literature Written by Arnold

The main purpose of this section is to clarify the relationship between published texts and their archival counterparts. Eventually, most of the sources behind the publications listed here will be included in our digital archive of Eberhard Arnold’s talks and writings. For inquiries regarding archival resources not directly associated with Arnold, researchers should contact the Bruderhof Historical Archive at contact@bruderhof.com.

Arnold, Eberhard. A Testimony to Church Community: The Life and Writings of Eberhard Arnold. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/justice/nonviolence/a-testimony-to-church-community.

A collection of excerpts from Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of church community, all of which will be made available eventually in our digital archive. Also includes a short biography by Emmy Arnold, and memories of others who knew him.

Earlier print edition: 2011. Originally an issue of: The Plough: Towards the Coming Order (new series) 1:3 (Autumn 1953). German: Der Pflug: Zeitschrift der Bruderhöfe [The Plough: Magazine of the Bruderhofs] (new series) 1:3 (1953). First book edition published as: Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church-Community from His Life and Writings. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1964. Second edition: 1973, with hyphen omitted from subtitle. https://archive.org/details/eberhardarnoldte00wood.

Arnold, Eberhard. Children's Education in Community: The Basis of Bruderhof Education. Edited and translated by Winifred Hildel and Miriam Mathis. Walden, NY: Plough, 2017. Available for purchase here: https://www.plough.com/en/topics/community/childrens-education-in-community.

Excerpts from Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of children and education.

First edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976. Concurrently published in German as: Gemeinsames Leben und Kindererziehung: Grundlagen der Bruderhoferziehung. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976.

Arnold, Eberhard. Foundation and Orders of Sannerz and the Rhön Bruderhof. Section I, Introductory History: The Basis for Our Orders, 1920–1929. Rifton, NY: Plough: 1976. https://archive.org/details/foundationorders0000arno.

A collection of primary sources illustrating the beliefs and foundations of the Bruderhof, originally written in 1929, in Arnold’s lifetime. The original, unpublished German can be read in our digital archive.

Arnold, Eberhard. God and Anti-God. Translated by Bruce Sumner and Kathleen E. Hasenberg. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1939.

Arnold, Eberhard. God’s Revolution: Justice, Community, and the Coming Kingdom. Walden, NY: Plough, 2021. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/gods-revolution.

Excerpts of Arnold’s most uncompromising words relating to discipleship and the kingdom of God.

Originally: God’s Revolution: The Witness of Eberhard Arnold. Edited by the Hutterian Society of Brothers and John Howard Yoder. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist, 1984. https://archive.org/details/godsrevolutionwi00arno. Concurrently published in German as: Die Revolution Gottes: Aus dem Lebenszeugnis der hutterischen Gemeinschaften [The Revolution of God: From the Life Witness of the Hutterite Communities]. Stuttgart: Radius-Verlag, 1984. New German edition: Die Revolution Gottes: Fundamente einer neuen Gesellschaft [The Revolution of God: Foundations for a New Society]. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2012. https://www.plough.com/de/themen/glaube/nachfolge/die-revolution-gottes.

Arnold, Eberhard. Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel. 5 vols. Walden, New York: Plough, 2019–2021. https://www.plough.com/en/books/inner-land.

Eberhard Arnold’s core theological text and life work, completed and published by others in the community in 1936, the year following his death. Eventually, all editions will be made available online. At present, only the untranslated, 1918 edition is in our digital archive. The German National Library has also digitized the 1936 edition (cf. citation below).

Originally published in one volume (note subtly different title): Innerland: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel (Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976). https://archive.org/details/innerlandguidein00arno. Second edition: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1999. https://archive.org/details/innerlandguidein0000arno. Ebook of 1999 edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. An abridged version was published as: War: A Call to the Inner Land. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 1987. https://archive.org/details/warcalltoinnerla0000arno. The 1936 edition was first published in German as: Innenland: Ein Wegweiser in die Seele der Bibel und in den Kampf um die Wirklichkeit. Silum, Liechtenstein: Buchverlag des Almbruderhof, 1936. https://portal.dnb.de/bookviewer/view/1032374659.

Arnold, Eberhard. Lectures and Writings. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1938.

Arnold, Eberhard. Love and Marriage in the Spirit. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1965. https://archive.org/details/lovemarriageinsp0000arno.

A collection of Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of love and marriage.

A collection of Arnold’s talks and writings on the theme of love and marriage. The original texts can be read in our digital archive: 1. Love Divine and Human; 2. On Woman’s Calling; 3. The Nature of Woman and of Man; 4. Marriage and the State; 5. The Mystery of Unity; 6. Faith and Marriage; 7. Conscience and Responsibility (excerpt from Inner Land); 8. The Bond of the Spirit; 9. Responsibility, Desire, and Love (includes text from another document); 10. The Promise; 11. Engagement (the second part of the text comes from here); 12. The Three Grades of Marriage; 13. Marriage in Unity; 14. Marriage a Symbol; 15. What is God’s Love? 16. Love Redeemed; 17. Christ the Head.

Arnold, Eberhard. Salt and Light: Living the Sermon on the Mount. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/bible-studies/salt-and-light.

A collection of talks and writings by Eberhard Arnold relating to themes in the Sermon on the Mount, covering the period between 1915 and 1935. The original documentary sources of each chapter are available to read in our digital archive (links provided according to title of each chapter in the fourth edition): 1. Not a New Law; 2. Becoming True Men and Women; 3. Salt and Light; 4. Happiness; 5. The Nature of the New Justice; 6. “But I Say to You…”; 7. Away from Compromise and Shadow; 8. Against Bloodshed and Violence; 9. The Better Righteousness; 10. God or Mammon; 11. The Fight against Mammon; 12. Mammon and the Living God; 13. The Decision; 14. Resistance by Surrender (a compilation of excerpts from Inner Land); 15. The Spirit of Life Overcomes; 16. Present Experience, Future Kingdom; 17. The Joyful News of the Kingdom. Two final chapters, published in the first three editions but omitted from the fourth, also have sources that can be viewed in our digital archive: God and the Future of Men; The Jesus of the Four Gospels.

The ebook cited above is based on the fourth print edition: Walden, NY: Plough, 1998. https://archive.org/details/saltlightlivings0000arno. First edition: Salt and Light: Talks and Writings on the Sermon on the Mount. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1967. https://archive.org/details/saltlighttalkswr0000arno. Second edition: 1977. Third edition: 1986. https://archive.org/details/saltlighttalkswr0000arno_l2l5. The first three editions are the same in content but differ in front matter. The fourth edition provides a more contemporary text and alternative pagination. Printed in German as: Salz und Licht: Über die Bergpredigt. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1982. https://archive.org/details/salzundlichtberd0000arno.

Arnold, Eberhard. Sendbrief from the Alm Bruderhof to the Rhön Bruderhof. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Early Anabaptists. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1984. https://archive.org/details/earlyanabaptists0000arno.

Based on the shorthand transcription of a talk given by Arnold on November 10, 1935, which can be viewed in our digital archive. The published text is supplemented with notes added by the original translation team. See the introduction in all published versions. The notes are also included in the two-part series on our website: part 1 and part 2.

First published in English as: “On the History of the Baptizer Movement in Reformation Times.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 43:3 (1969): 213–233. First book edition: History of the Baptizers Movement. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1970.

Arnold, Eberhard, ed. The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/early-christians/early-christians.

This book was first published as Die ersten Christen nach dem Tode der Apostel [The First Christians after the Death of the Apostles]. Quellen [Sources]. Volume 1. Sannerz and Leipzig: Eberhard Arnold Verlag, 1926. The version that can be viewed in our digital archive also contains mark-ups by Arnold that were used as the basis for the English translations.

First electronic edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. Various print editions, some details unclear: The Early Christians: After the Death of the Apostles. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1939. Reprint (?): Rifton, NY: Plough, 1970. https://archive.org/details/earlychristiansa0000unse. Second edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1972. Second edition reprint (?): The Early Christians: A Sourcebook on the Witness of the Early Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1979. Fourth edition: The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1998.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Hutterian Brothers: Four Centuries of Common Life and Work. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1940.

Sometimes mistakenly cited as: The Hutterite Brothers.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Individual and World Need. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/justice/social-justice/individual-and-world-need.

A translation of Arnold’s essay series: “Der Einzige und die Weltnot.”

Print: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. https://archive.org/details/individualworldn0000arno. Originally: Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1938.

Arnold, Eberhard. The Peace of God. Ashton Keynes, UK: Plough, 1940.

Arnold, Eberhard. Why We Live in Community. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/community/communal-living/why-we-live-in-community.

The book consists in an English translation of Arnold’s essay of the same name, which can be viewed in our digital archive: first published in 1925, and then again in 1927. The book includes two talks by Thomas Merton.

First edition: Rifton, NY: Plough, 1967–1972 (multiple reprints). Second edition: 1976. Third edition: Farmington, PA: 1995. https://archive.org/details/whyweliveincommu0000arno. Published in German as: Warum wir in Gemeinschaft leben. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. Second German edition: 1992.

Arnold, Eberhard and Emmy. Seeking for the Kingdom of God: Origins of the Bruderhof Communities. Edited by Heini and Annemarie Arnold. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. https://archive.org/details/seekingforkingdo0000arno.

A collection of texts illustrating the origins of the Bruderhof. The majority of the book consists of letters written between Eberhard and Emmy over their three-year engagement period, which will be made available eventually in our digital archive. Some commentary is provided for context.

Arnold, Eberhard and Emmy. Love Letters. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/life/marriage/love-letters.

A collection of letters between Eberhard and Arnold written throughout their three-year engagement period (1907–1909).

Arnold, Eberhard, Emmy Arnold, and Else von Hollander. Poems and Rhymed Prayers. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/culture/poetry/poems-and-rhymed-prayers.

A collection of Arnold’s poems, with historical notes provided throughout.

The original print version was longer and included poems by Emmy Arnold and Else von Hollander as well: Plough, 2003. https://archive.org/details/poemsrhymedpraye0000arno.

Arnold, Eberhard and Richard J. Foster. The Prayer God Answers. Translated by Eileen Robertshaw et al. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/prayer/prayer-god-answers.

An essay by Arnold on prayer, followed by a response from Richard Foster. The essay, “Die Übermacht des Gebetslebens” [The Superior Power of Prayer Life] can be viewed in our digital archive. It was first published in 1913 and revised again in 1929.

Concurrently published in a print edition.

Arnold, Johann Christoph, ed. Eberhard Arnold: Writings Selected. Modern Spiritual Masters. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011.

A collection of Eberhard Arnold’s texts selected by his grandson, Johann Christoph Arnold, giving a broad picture of Eberhard’s theology and spirituality.

Originally: Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2000.

Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. https://archive.org/details/brothersuniteacc0000arno.

A collection of letters between Eberhard Arnold, the Bruderhof, Hutterites, and other Anabaptists. The volume includes introductory material, annotations, and appendixes. Material by Eberhard Arnold and letters addressed to him will eventually be published in the digital archive on this website.

Pfeiffer, Arnold, ed. “Eberhard Arnold und der Weg des Bruderhof-Lebens” [Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhof Way of Life]. In Religiöse Sozialisten [Religious Socialists]. Edited by Arnold Pfeiffer. 201–76. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Walter, 1976.

Contains three texts by Arnold, which can be read in our digital archive: “Weltrevolution und Welterlösung” [World Revolution and World Redemption]; “Familienverband und Siedlungsleben” [Extended Households and Communal Life]; and “Zum augenblicklichen Stand der Neuwerksache” [The Current State of the Neuwerk Movement]. A text from 1928, by Bruderhof member Karl Roland Keiderling, is also included, titled, “Vom Klassenkampf zum Geisteskampf” [From Class Struggle to Spiritual Struggle].

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Literature Written During Arnold’s Lifetime

Althaus, Paul. Religiöser Sozialismus: Grundfragen der christlichen Sozialethik [Religious Socialism: Basic Questions in Christian Social Ethics]. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1921. https://archive.org/details/religisersoziali0000alth.

Some references to Arnold and the Neuwerk movement.

Bender, Harold S. “The New Hutterite Bruderhof in Germany.” Christian Monitor (Mennonite Publishing House, PA) 1 (1931): 18. Digitized with alternative pagination at: https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/1931_bender_h_text.pdf?la=en.

Celebrated Anabaptist theologian and historian, Harold S. Bender, recalls his visit to the Rhön Bruderhof.

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. London, 1933–1935. Edited by Hans Goedeking et al. Translated by Isabel Best and Douglas W. Scott. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works. Volume 13. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2007.

Contains correspondence between Bruderhof members, including Arnold, concerning the meeting between Arnold’s son Hardy and Dietrich Bonhoeffer. The letters are 92a, 114a, 114b, 115a, 115b, and 121a (pp. 133–34, 158–66, and 174).

The letters were not published in the original German edition: London: 1933–1935. Edited by Hans Goedeking et al. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke. Volume 13. Munich: Kaiser, 1994. They were first published in German as: “Bruderhof-Korrespondenz 1934.” In Victoria Barnett et al, ed. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Jahrbuch 2:2005/2006. 75–87. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlaghaus, 2005. The Bruderhof Historical Archive holds five of the six original letters. The earliest letter, from Hardy to Bonhoeffer, only has one page and is missing the rest. It is held in the Nachlass Dietrich Bonhoeffer collection in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Berlin State Library).

Dugard, Donald R. “A Christian Community To-day.” Reconciliation: Looking Towards a Christian World 12:6 (1934): 160–161.

Foerster, Friedrich Wilhelm. Jugendseele, Jugendbewegung, Jugendziel [Youth Soul, Youth Movement, Youth Goal]. Zurich: Rotapfel, 1923. https://archive.org/details/jugendseelejugen00foer.

Arnold mentioned throughout, but see especially, “Die protestantische Jugendbewegung” (The Protestant Youth Movement), pp. 234–51.

Hausrath, August. Jugendbewegung und Schule [The Youth Movement and School]. Karlsruhe: G. Braunsch, 1923.

Two pages on the Neuwerk movement.

Hermann, Rudolf. Die Bergpredigt und die Religiös-Sozialen: Vorträge [The Sermon on the Mount and the Religious Socialists: Lectures]. Leipzig: A. Deichert, 1922.

Horsch, John. “Nonresistance under Difficulty.” Gospel Herald (Scottdale, PA) 28 (October 24, 1935): 650.

Klein, Thomas, ed. Die Lageberichte der Geheimen Staatspolizei über die Provinz Hessen-Nassau, 1933–1936 [The Situation Reports of the Gestapo on the Province of Hesse-Nassau, 1933–1936]. Vol. 1. A und B. Cologne: Böhlau, 1986.

A collection of Gestapo intelligence sources, with some on the Bruderhof movement.

Ragaz, Christine et al, ed. Leonhard Ragaz in seinen Briefen [Leonhard Ragaz in His Letters]. 3 vols. Zurich: EVZ, 1966; TVZ, 1982–1992.

See letters 301 and 332 (vol. 2, pp. 419–22; vol. 3, pp. 47–48). Helpful commentary is provided in the form of footnotes, as well as a comment in the introduction to vol. 2 (pp. 23–24).

Ragaz, Leonhard, ed. Neue Wege: Blätter für religiose Arbeit [New Ways: Journal for Religious Work]. Zurich: 1922–1935. https://www.e-periodica.ch/digbib/volumes?UID=new-001.

Founded in 1906, Neue Wege is still running today. References to Arnold, Sannerz, and the Bruderhof occasionally appear between 1922 and 1935, under Leonhard Ragaz’s editorialship. See especially Ragaz’s obituary for Arnold in 1935: “Von der Gemeinde der Verewigten” [The Church Community of the Immortalized]. Neue Wege 29:12 (1935): 638–39.

Wächter, Annemarie. Anni: Letters and Writings of Annemarie Wächter. Edited by Marianne Wright. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/anni.

A collection of letters and writings by Annemarie Wächter, who later joined the Bruderhof in the early 1930s. They trace her involvement in the Youth Movement, her friendship with Eberhard Arnold’s daughter, Emi-Margret, and her life in community. Commentary provides historical context throughout.

Originally: Arnold, Annemarie. Youth Movement to Bruderhof: Letters and Diaries of Annemarie Arnold née Wächter, 1926–1932. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1986.

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Book Reviews

Falter, G. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Archiv für systematische Philosophie [Archive for Systematic Philosophy] 17:4 (1911): 496–97. https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=26ZVAAAAYAAJ.

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Freyer-Leipzig, J. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie [Journal for the Psychology of Religion] 5:12 (March 1912): 415. https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=x0NNAQAAMAAJ.

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Grützmacher, Richard H. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologisches Literaturblatt [Theological Literature Journal] 31:18 (1910): 424–25.

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Herzog. Review of Der Krieg: Ein Aufruf zur Innerlichkeit [The War: A Call to Inwardness], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologisches Literaturblatt [Theological Literature Journal] 36:18 (1915): 427–28.

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

Herzog. Review of Die Religiosität der heutigen Jugend [The Religious Nature of Today’s Youth], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologisches Literaturblatt [Theological Literature Journal] 40:21 (1919): 346–47.

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

Niebergall, Friedrich. Review of Innenland: Ein Wegweiser in die Seele der Bibel [Inner Land: A Guide into the Soul of the Bible], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologische Literaturzeitung [Theological Literature Journal] 44:23 (1919): 279. https://ixtheo.de/Record/1521287449.

Review of Eberhard Arnold’s post-war edition of Inner Land. The book is currently pending digitization.

Richter, Raoul. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Deutsche Literaturzeitung [German Literature Journal] 32:36 (September 1911): 2258–59. https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=sVFHAQAAMAAJ.

The reviewed book, Arnold’s doctoral thesis, can be viewed in our digital archive.

Schuster, Hermann. Review of Die Religiosität der heutigen Jugend [The Religious Nature of Today’s Youth], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologische Literaturzeitung [Theological Literature Journal] 45:25 (1920): 308. https://ixtheo.de/Record/1476142017.

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

Schwartzkopff, Paul. Review of Urchristliches und Antichristliches im Werdegang Friedrich Nietzsches [Early Christian and Anti-Christian Elements in the Career of Friedrich Nietzsche], by Eberhard Arnold. Theologische Literaturzeitung [Theological Literature Journal] 36:22 (1911): 691–95. https://ixtheo.de/Record/1476195889.

The reviewed book can be viewed in our digital archive.

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Memoirs

Arnold, E. C. H (Hardy). “The Fate of a Christian Experiment.” The Spectator (London), June 11, 1937, 11–12.

Arnold’s son, Hardy, briefly recounts the origins of the Bruderhof in Germany and the group’s challenges under Nazism.

Arnold, Hardy. “Begegnung mit Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Ein Bericht (1979)” [Meeting with Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Report (1979)]. In Victoria Barnett et al, ed. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Jahrbuch 2:2005/2006. 105–9. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlaghaus, 2005.

The recollections of Arnold’s son Hardy on his 1934 meeting with Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

Arnold, Emmy. “50 Jahre Bruderhofgemeinschaft Sannerz: Die Anfangsjahre der Bruderhofgemeinschaften in Deutschland” [50 Years of the Bruderhof Community at Sannerz: The Starting Years of the Bruderhof Communities in Germany]. Fuldaer Zeitung, May 1970.

Arnold, Emmy. A Joyful Pilgrimage: My Life in Community. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/a-joyful-pilgrimage.

Arnold’s wife, Emmy, recounts her early life the period of the Bruderhof in Germany. The text is based on extensive notes, handwritten in German, some of which go back to the 1930s. Some editorial additions and alterations were made based on later research. The result is one of the most important sources on the life of Eberhard and Emmy Arnold.

Originally: Torches Together: The Beginning and Early Years of the Bruderhof Communities. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1964. https://archive.org/details/torchestogethert00arno. Second edition: 1971. https://archive.org/details/torchestogetherb00arno. Third edition: A Joyful Pilgrimage: My Life in Community. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1999. https://archive.org/details/joyfulpilgrimage00arno_0. German edition: Gegen den Strom: Das Werden der Brüderhöfe [Against the Current: The Development of the Bruderhofs]. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1983. Reprint: 1992. German ebook: Gegen den Strom: Ein Leben in der Herausforderung der Bergpredigt [Against the Current: A Life under the Challenge of the Sermon on the Mount]. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2012. https://www.plough.com/de/themen/glaube/nachfolge/gegen-den-strom.

Arnold, Emmy. “Eberhard Arnold’s Life and Work.” In Eberhard Arnold, A Testimony to Church Community: The Life and Writings of Eberhard Arnold. 1–15. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/justice/nonviolence/a-testimony-to-church-community.

A short biography of Arnold, written by his wife.

Original in: Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church Community from His Life and Writings. 1–28. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1973. https://archive.org/details/eberhardarnoldte00wood.

Berber, Friedrich. Zwischen Macht und Gewissen: Lebenserinnerungen [Between Power and Conscience: Memoirs]. Munich: Beck, 1986.

Contains a small amount of information on Arnold, as Friedrich Berber remembers him.

Blum, Emil. Als wäre es gestern gewesen [As Though It Were Yesterday]. Zurich: Flamberg, 1973.

A member of the Neuwerk movement, Blum’s autobiography refers to Arnold in places.

Brandenburg, Hans, ed. Ich hatte Durst nach Gott: Aus dem Leben und Dienen von Christa von Viebahn [I Was Thirsty for God: From the Life and Service of Christa von Viebahn]. Aidlingen: Diakonissenmutterhaus Aidlingen[, 1979?]. Third printing: https://info1.sermon-online.com/german/HansBrandenburg/Ich_Hatte_Durst_Nach_Gott.pdf.

A chapter on the evangelist General Georg von Viebahn draws on quotes from Arnold, who knew him (pp. 21–33).

Dehn, Günther. Die alte Zeit, die vorigen Jahre: Lebenserinnerungen [The Old Times, the Former Years: Memoirs]. Munich: Kaiser, 1962.

Dehn was involved in the Neuwerk movement with Arnold. See the chapter, “Neuwerk,” pp. 230–246.

Reprint: 1964.

Eggers, Ulrich. Community for Life. Scottdale, PA: Herald, 1998. https://archive.org/details/communityforlife0000egge.

An outsider’s account of life at the Woodcrest Bruderhof in New York State. Recounts Bruderhof history in places, with some inaccuracies.

Harder, Johannes. Aufbruch ohne Ende: Geschichten meines Lebens [Awakening without End: Stories from My Life]. Edited by Hermann Horn. Wuppertal, Germany: Brockhaus, 1992.

Contains a small amount of information on Arnold, as Johannes Harder remembers him.

Heim, Karl. Ich gedenke der vorigen Zeiten: Erinnerungen aus acht Jahrzehnten [I Remember the Former Times: Memoirs from Eight Decades]. Hamburg: Furche, 1957.

Contains a small amount of information on Arnold, as Karl Heim remembers him.

Hönig, Ludwig and Margrit Hönig, ed. Otto Bruder: Aus seinem Leben und Wirken [Otto Bruder: From His Life and Works]. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk 1975.

The book comprises material from Otto Salomon, who knew Arnold from his Neuwerk days.

“Letters from Friends.” In Eberhard Arnold. A Testimony to Church Community: The Life and Writings of Eberhard Arnold. 39–53. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/justice/nonviolence/a-testimony-to-church-community.

Brief recollections from people who knew Arnold during his lifetime, collected for the publication of this book.

Earlier print edition: 2011. Originally in: Eberhard Arnold: A Testimony of Church-Community from His Life and Writings. 73–100. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1964. Second edition: 1973, with hyphen omitted from subtitle. https://archive.org/details/eberhardarnoldte00wood.

Mason, Arnold and Gladys Mason. How We Came to the Bruderhof: And Our Memories of Eberhard Arnold. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1977.

A very short memoir by Arnold and Gladys Mason, who came from the UK to join the Bruderhof in Liechtenstein.

Meier, Hans. Hans Meier Tells His Story to a Friend. Ulster Park, NY: Plough, 1988. Digitized with alternative pagination at: https://www.bruderhof.com/~/media/files/bruderhof/resources/people-and-interests/hans-meier-letter.pdf.

A very short autobiographical text by Hans Meier, who was involved in religious socialist circles in Switzerland before joining the Bruderhof.

Meier, Hans. Solange das Licht brennt: Lebensbericht eines Mitglieds der neuhutterischen Bruderhof-Gemeinschaft [So Long as the Light Burns: The Story of a Member of the Neo-Hutterite Bruderhof Community]. Norfolk, CT: Hutterian Brethren, Deer Spring; Birnbach, Germany: Bruderhof-Gemeinschaft Michaelshof, 1990.

Second edition: 1995. Unpublished English translation: “As Long as there is Light,” 1995.

Mommsen, Peter. Homage to a Broken Man: The Life of J. Heinrich Arnold. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2014. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/homage-to-a-broken-man.

Peter Mommsen is a member of the Bruderhof and editor of Plough Quarterly. In this book, he writes about his grandfather, the son of Eberhard Arnold. The material is based on archival documents and conversations with older Bruderhof members. It contains extensive details on Eberhard Arnold not found elsewhere.

German translation: Radikal barmherzig: Das Leben von Johann Heinrich Arnold; Eine Geschichte von Glauben und Vergebung, Hingabe und Gemeinschaft. Translated by Christopher Groß. Schwarzenfeld, Germany: Neufeld, 2017.

Mow, Merrill. Torches Rekindled: The Bruderhof’s Struggle for Renewal. Ulster Park, NY: Plough, 1989.

Second, expanded edition: 1990. Third edition: 1991.

Schoeps, Hans Joachim. Rückblicke: Die letzten 30 Jahre (1925–1955) und danach [Retrospects: The Last 30 years (1925–1955) and After]. Berlin: Haude und Spener, 1963.

Contains a small amount of information on Arnold, as Hans Schoeps remembers him.

First edition: Die letzten dreißig Jahre: Rückblicke [The Last Thirty Years: Retrospects]. Stuttgart: Klett, 1956.

Zumpe, Hans, Emmy Arnold, Georg Barth et al. Eberhard Arnold: Sein Leben für die Bruderhöfe; seine Sendung für das kommende Reich Gottes und die Anrichtung völliger Gemeinschaft unter den Menschen [Eberhard Arnold: His Life for the Bruderhofs; His Commission for the Coming Kingdom of God, and the Establishment of Complete Community among Human Beings]. Silum, Liechtenstein: Buchverlag des Almbruderhof, 1936.

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Scholarly Literature

The sources in the following selection vary in regard to scholarly rigor and intended audience. The line between scholarly and popular-level works is not always clear-cut.

Books and Theses

Barnett, Michael Cole. “The Bruderhof (Society of Brothers) and the Hutterites in Historical Context.” Ph.D. thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, TX, 1995. Digitized with alternative pagination at: https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/barnett_thesis.pdf?la=en.

Barnett details the history of the relationship between the Hutterites and the Bruderhof, who were in communion from 1930–1955 and 1974–1995. The thesis basic overviews of both Hutterite and Bruderhof histories, beliefs, and organization. Two passages on the relationship between these two groups during Eberhard Arnold’s time will be of particular interest (pp. 82–83, 99–105 in original; pp. 77–78, 91–95 in alternative pagination version). The thesis largely summarizes material available in published primary sources such as Emmy Arnold’s A Joyful Pilgrimage and the letter collection, Brothers Unite.

Barth, Emmy. An Embassy Besieged: The Story of a Christian Community in Nazi Germany. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2010. https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/embassy_besieged.pdf?la=en.

Emmy Barth Maendel, is a historian, archivist, and current member of the Bruderhof. Her book provides a detailed account of the group’s history under Nazism, often proceeding month by month through the events of the time. Maendel’s intimate familiarity with archival material informs her selection of key primary source documents, and lengthy excerpts are reproduced in the work to allow readers to engage with the texts themselves. A summary of this period in Bruderhof history, based on Maendel’s book, is provided on this website.

German translation: Botschaftsbelagerung: Die Geschichte einer christlichen Gemeinschaft im Nationalsozialismus; eine kommentierte Dokumentation. Translated by Jutta Manke. Bad Klosterlausnitz, Germany: Holzlandgemeinschaft, 2018.

Baum, Markus. Against the Wind: Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhof. Translated by Eileen Robertshaw. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/against-the-wind.

Baum’s monograph constitutes the most detailed biography of Arnold to date, drawing on multiple primary and secondary sources. His work provides a detailed overview of Arnold’s life and though, and is recommended as a starting point for all researchers working on anything related to Arnold. The (much shorter) biography we provide on this site is based on Baum’s work.

Print edition: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1998. Pagination differs. https://archive.org/details/againstwindeberh00baum. Original German: Stein des Anstosses: Eberhard Arnold 1883–1935 [Stumbling Block]. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1996. German reprint: Eberhard Arnold: Ein Leben im Geist des Bergpredigt [Eberhard Arnold: A Life in the Spirit of the Sermon on the Mount]. Schwarzenfeld, Germany: Neufeld, 2013. Available for purchase here: https://www.plough.com/de/themen/glaube/nachfolge/eberhard-arnold-ein-leben.

Baumann, Imanuel. Loyalitätsfragen: Glaubensgemeinschaften der täuferischen Tradition in den staatlichen Neugründungsphasen des 20. Jahrhunderts [Questions of Loyalty: Faith Communities in the Anabaptist Tradition during the State Reestablishment Phases of the 20th Century]. Göttingen: V&R Unipress, 2021.

Blum, Emil. Die Neuwerk-Bewegung: 1922–1933 [The Neuwerk Movement: 1922–1933]. Kassel, Germany: Johannes-Stauda, 1973.

Gibbard, Noel. On the Wings of the Dove: The International Effects of the 1904–05 Revival. Bridgend, Wales: Bryntirion, 2002.

A study of the Welsh revival, with minor references to Arnold. See pp. 43–45, 193–95.

Haas, Joachim. Abseits der “grossen” Geschichte: Opposition und Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus im Raum Fulda; Versuch einer Spurensicherung [Far from “Great” History: Opposition and Resistance to National Socialism in the Fulda Area; A Forensic Attempt]. Frankfurt: Jugend und Politik, 1989.

Heinz-Mohr, Gerd. Christsein in Kommunitäten [Being Christian in Communities]. Stuttgart: Steinkopf, 1968.

Some references to Arnold throughout.

Henkys, Jürgen. Bibelarbeit: Der Umgang mit der Heiligen Schrift in den evangelischen Jugendverbänden nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg [Bible Study: The Handling of Holy Scripture in Protestant Youth Associations after the First World War]. Hamburg: Furche, 1966.

Kim, Hyun Jin. “Protestant Communities as Mission Communities: A Systematic and Historical Study.” Ph.D. thesis. North-West University, South Africa, 2011.

The thesis explores Christian ideas of community throughout history and includes case studies of contemporary intentional communities. A case study of the Robertbridge Bruderhof in the UK includes a section on its history. Material on the Hutterites uses Arnold as a source.

Kindt, Werner. Die deutsche Jugendbewegung 1920 bis 1933: Die bündische Zeit [The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933: The Bündische Period]. Düsseldorf: Diederich, 1974.

Kleinsasser, Ian. Blessings and Burdens: 100 Years of Hutterites in Manitoba. MacGregor, Manitoba: Hutterian Brethren Book Centre, 2019.

Reference to Arnold and the Bruderhof throughout, especially in the first section. This material is drawn from published primary sources, though some archival photographs are also included.

Kreß, Barbara. “Der Bruderhof in Deutschland: Von 1920 bis 1937.” 1987.

A ~150 pp. research paper on the years of the Bruderhof in Germany. Besides the date, no information is provided on the degree the paper was written for. Kreß draws on a range on published primary sources, as well as items published by Arnold when he was alive, and secondary sources in German. The paper was found in the Archiv der deutschen Jugendbewegung (Archive of the German Youth Movement).

Kupisch, Karl. Studenten entdecken die Bibel: Die Geschichte der Deutschen Christlichen Studenten-Vereinigung (DCSV) [Students discover the Bible: The History of the German Christian Student Movement]. Hamburg: Furche, 1964.

Lichti, James Irvin. Houses on the Sand? Pacifist Denominations in Nazi Germany. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.

Scattered references to the Bruderhof (“Hutterites”) under Nazism throughout. The value of this work is in situating these in the wider context of the history of Christian pacifist and free church groups in Nazi Germany.

Perhaps adapted from: “The Response to National Socialism by Denominations with Teachings against Bearing Arms.” Ph.D thesis, University of California, 2000.

Lichti, James Irvin. “Religious Identity vs. "Aryan" Identity: German Mennonites and Hutterites under the Third Reich.” Master’s thesis, San Francisco State University, 1989.

Linse, Ulrich, ed. Zurück, o Mensch, zur Mutter Erde: Landkommunen in Deutschland 1890–1933 [Back, O Man, to Mother Earth: Rural Communes in Germany, 1890–1933]. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1983.

Nauerth, Thomas. Zeugnis, Liebe und Widerstand: Der Rhönbruderhof 1933–1937 [Witness, Love, and Resistance: The Rhön Bruderfhof 1933–1937]. Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh, 2018.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. This book constitutes his main study and provides a very detailed account of Bruderhof life during this period, drawing on primary sources from the Bruderhof Historical Archive and archival material from other sites. In addition to historical analysis, Nauerth addresses ethical and theological problems that arise – at least from a Christian perspective. These use of using deception in relationship to Nazi authorities, whether discipleship can only be properly carried out in community, and what it means to love your enemies in a time like this, among other topics.

The book has been translated into English and is currently pending publication.

Oved, Yaacov. Distant Brothers: History of the Relations Between the Bruderhof and the Kibbutz. Translated by Hanna Lash and Yehuda Riemer. Ramat Ef’al, Israel: Yad Tabenkin, 1993. https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/oved-distant-brothers_001.pdf?la=en.

The relationship between the Bruderhof and the Kibbutz in Arnold’s time is briefly treated in the first chapter, “Beginnings,” and in the first three pages of the next chapter.

Oved, Yaacov. The Witness of the Brothers: A History of the Bruderhof. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996. https://archive.org/details/witnessofbrother00oved.

A history of the Bruderhof from its beginnings to the 1990s, when the book was written. The first three chapters concern the Bruderhof during Arnold’s lifetime. Oved draws on archival material, memoirs, and interviews with Bruderhof members who were alive at the time.

Reprints: 2013; London: Routledge, 2017.

Pruisken, Andreas. “Spirit versus Structure.” Yale Divinity School, 1984.

The research paper is divided into five parts and pagination starts again from the beginning each time on parts three, four, and five. The chapter of interest is part four, titled, “Bonhoeffer’s Bruderhaus and Arnold’s Bruderhof—an Historical Realization of the Struggle of Spirit and Structure.” The paper is interesting in regard to subject matter, though it draws on a limited number of sources and is not essential reading.

Randall, Ian M. A Christian Peace Experiment: The Bruderhof Community in Britain, 1933–1942. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018.

Randall, Ian M. “Church Community is a Gift of the Holy Spirit”: The Spirituality of the Bruderhof Community. Oxford, UK: Regent’s Park College, 2014. https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-life-and-beliefs/randall--church-community-is-a-gift-of-the-holy-spirit.pdf?la=en.

This short book (~60pp.) looks at the often-neglected theme of spirituality in Bruderhof history and contemporary practice. An opening literature review provides a helpful and critical summary of other studies on the Bruderhof (pp. 2–9). The book offers a detailed account and analysis of Arnold’s own spirituality, alongside that of the Bruderhof.

Selke, Britta. “Eberhard Arnold und seine Bruderhöfe” [Eberhard Arnold and His Bruderhofs]. Dissertation, University of Göttingen, 1986.

A ~130pp. research paper on Arnold’s life and the Bruderhof during his time. The paper also gives attention to his intellectual formation and theological outlook. It was found in the Archiv der deutschen Jugendbewegung (Archive of the German Youth Movement).

Siepmann, Heinzfried. Brüder und Genossen: Ansätze für einen genossenschaftlichen Gemeindeaufbau [Brothers and Comrades: Approaches to Establishing Church Community Cooperatively]. Cologne: Rheinland, 1987.

Stieglitz, Thomas von. Kirche als Bruderschaft: Das hutterische Kirchenbild bei Eberhard Arnold aus heutiger katholischer Sicht [Church as Brotherhood: The Hutterite View of the Church According to Eberhard Arnold, a Contemporary Catholic Perspective]. Published Ph.D. thesis, Paderborn University, Germany, 1991.

Tyldesley, Mike. No Heavenly Delusion? A Comparative Study of Three Communal Movements. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 2003.

This book compares three communal movements that arose out of the German Youth Movement: the Bruderhof, the Integrierte Gemeinde, and the Kibbutz. The first chapter, on the German Youth Movement, provides particularly helpful background for understanding the genesis of the first Bruderhof movement. This relationship is addressed explicitly in the following chapter (pp. 39–42). Connections between the three groups are briefly explored (pp. 53–55). The chapter on the Bruderhof recounts the movement’s full history; its story and thought during Arnold’s lifetime is summarized on pp. 61–64, 71–82. Two final comparative and analytical chapters (pp. 151–94) address common themes in the study of the three groups, occasionally relevant for scholars of the period under Arnold.

Vollmer, Antje. Die Neuwerkbewegung: Zwischen Jugendbewegung und religiösem Sozialismus [The Neuwerk Movement: Between the Youth Movement and Religious Socialism]. Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 2016.

This book details the history of the Neuwerk movement, which the Arnolds were a part of when they founded the first Bruderhof at Sannerz. This period is addressed on pp. 77–134, centring on life at Sannerz, the publishing house, the international peace movement, the Youth Movement, and the 1922 split at Sannerz.

A lightly annotated, unpublished English translation is held by the Bruderhof Historical Archive. Originally (pagination differs): Die Neuwerkbewegung 1919–1935: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Jugendbewegung, des Religiösen Sozialismus und der Arbeiterbildung [The Neuwerk Movement 1919–1935: A Contribution to the History of the Youth Movement, Religious Socialism, and Worker Education]. Published Ph.D. thesis, Free University of Berlin, 1973.

Wehowsky, Stephan. Religiöse Interpretation politischer Erfahrung: Eberhard Arnold und die Neuwerkbewegung als Exponenten des religiösen Sozialismus zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik [Religious Interpretation of Political Experience: Eberhard Arnold and the Neuwerk Movement as Exponents of Religious Socialism in the Weimar Republic Period]. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1980. https://archive.org/details/religiseinterpre0000weho.

A detailed study of Arnold and the Neuwerk movement, attending to background in romanticism and the Youth Movement, Arnold’s own biography and intellectual development, the establishment of the Neuwerk movement, and the latter’s theological commitments. The final chapter discusses three questions: whether the movement developed a satisfactory understanding of God in light of war and related social changes; whether the movement’s theological framework can break free from its roots in Romanticism; to what extent Arnold and other Neuwerk members not being formally involved in politics represents a theological deficiency.

Originally: Ph.D. thesis, Marburg University, Germany, 1979.

Whitworth, John McKelvie. God’s Blueprints: A Sociological Study of Three Utopian Sects. London: Routledge, 1975. https://archive.org/details/godsblueprintsso0000whit.

Whitworth’s study provides a (somewhat unsympathetic) exploration of three groups: the Shakers (founded 1747), the Oneida Community, and the Bruderhof. The chapter on the Bruderhof (pp. 167–209) weaves together historical material from Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together (later: A Joyful Pilgrimage), Eberhard Arnold’s texts published in English, and some of the few secondary sources on the Bruderhof available at the time of writing.

Reprint: Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2019.

Wirth, Günter. Die deutsche evangelische Kirche und die Novemberrevolution: Eine kritische Untersuchung [The German Protestant Church and the November Revolution: A Critical Analysis]. Edited by the Sekretariat des Hauptvorstandes der Christlich-Demokratischen Union Deutschlands. Hefte aus Burgscheidungen 255. Berlin: Union-Verlag, 1988.

This booklet (38 pp.) comments on the Neuwerk movement and Eberhard Arnold in connection with developments in the Protestant churches after WWI (pp. 14–15).

Zablocki, Benjamin. The Joyful Community: An Account of the Bruderhof—A Communal Movement Now in Its Third Generation. Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1971.

This book provides an overview of Bruderhof life from a sociological perspective. The account of the Bruderhof during Arnold’s lifetime (pp. 63–81) is largely based on Emmy Arnold’s Torches Together (later: A Joyful Pilgrimage).

Reprint: Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Cf.: “Christians Because It Works: A Study of Bruderhof Communitarianism.” Ph.D. thesis, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1967.

Zehrer, Karl. Evangelische Freikirchen und das “Dritte Reich” [Protestant Free Churches and the “Third Reich”]. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986.

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Chapters and Articles

Adam, Dejan. “‘The Practical, Visible Witness of Discipleship’: The Life and Convictions of Hans Meier (1902–1992).” In Counter-Cultural Communities: Baptistic Life in Twentieth-Century Europe. Edited by Keith G. Jones and Ian M. Randall. 285–342. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2008.

Hans Meier joined the Bruderhof in 1933. Drawing on first-hand accounts from Meier in the Bruderhof Historical Archive, Adam provides a picture of early Bruderhof life, its relationship to other communities such as Werkhof in Switzerland, and its struggles under Nazism. The article also attends to the history of the community after leaving Germany and Liechtenstein, concluding with Meier’s death in 1992.

Durnbaugh, Donald. “Relocation of the German Bruderhof to England, South America, and North America.” Communal Societies 11 (1991): 62–77.

A brief outline of Bruderhof history, with helpful citations.

Ebeling, Rainer. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer und Eberhard Arnold” [Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Eberhard Arnold]. In Dietrich Bonhoeffers Ringen um die Kirche: Eine Ekklesiologie im Kontext freikirchlicher Theologie [Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Struggle for the Church: An Ecclesiology in the Context of Free Church Theology]. 278–330. Gießen, Germany: Brunnen, 1996.

The most detailed treatment of the relationship between Bonhoeffer and Arnold so far, who shared many overlapping theological concerns and indirectly met each other through Arnold’s son Hardy while the latter was studying in England. Ebeling looks at this encounter, the history of the Bruderhof up until this time, and Arnold’s potential influence on Bonhoeffer, especially in regard to Bonhoeffer’s pacifism and interest in living in community.

Other writers have briefly commented on this relationship. See e.g. Clifford J. Green, “Pacifism and Tyrannicide: Bonhoeffer’s Christian Peace Ethic,” Studies in Christian Ethics 18:3 (2005): 31–47, here 36–37; Ferdinand Schlingensiepen, Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945: Martyr, Thinker, Man of Resistance, trans. Isabel Best (London: T&T Clark, 2010), 174–75; Charles Marsh, Strange Glory: A Life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (London: SPCK, 2014), 218–220, 441n103; and Gerard den Hertog, “God Waits for and Responds to Sincere Prayer and Responsible Actions: Liturgy and Ethics in Dietrich Bonhoeffer,” in Liturgy and Ethics: New Contributions from Reformed Perspectives, ed. Pieter Vos, 49–64 (Leiden: Brill, 2018), 53.

Friedmann, Robert. “Fifty Years Society of Brothers (1920-1970): Their Story and Their Books.” Mennonite Life 25:4 (1970): 159-64. https://mla.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/pre2000/1970oct.pdf.

A brief outline of Bruderhof history, with a focus on publishing work.

Fuchs, Manfred. “Die Bruderhofgemeinde” [The Bruderhof Church Community]. In Probleme des Wirtschaftsstils von Lebensgemeinschaften, erörtert am Beispiel der Wirtschaftsunternehmen der deutschen Jugendbewegung [Problems in the Economic Approaches of Communes, Examined through the Example of the Economic Enterprises of the German Youth Movement]. 27–35. Göttingen: Schwartz, 1957.

Gerlach, Horst. “Zu Hans Meier: ‘Erinnerungen eines Bruderhöfers’” [Regarding Hans Meier: “Memoirs of a Member of the Bruderhof.”] Christ und Sozialist 1984, no. 3, 14–19.

Gollwitzer, Helmut. “Einiges zu Eberhard Arnold und den Bruderhöfen” [A Little on Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhofs]. Neue Wege: Beiträge zu Religion und Sozialismus [New Ways: Contributions to Religion and Socialism] 82:7–8 (1988): 232–37. https://www.e-periodica.ch/digbib/view?pid=new-001%3A1988%3A82%3A%3A235#235.

An appreciation of Arnold in the context of traditional criticisms of Anabaptists and other Schwärmer (“enthusiasts”) held by the established churches in Germany since the Reformation. Gollwitzer recalls his youthful dismissiveness of Arnold in this connection. He provides brief biographical insights and is particularly appreciative of Arnold’s opposition to military power and private property, contrasting this with the support these were given by the established churches in Arnold’s time.

Reprint in: Basileia: Festschrift für Eduard Buess. Edited by Hans Dürr and Christoph Ramstein. 117–26. Basel, Switzerland: Edition Mitenand, 1993.

Hardy, Dennis. “Sacred Places.” In Utopian England: Community Experiments, 1900–1945. 163–202. London: E & FN Spon, 2000. https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/hardy-utopian-england_001.pdf?la=en.

A brief overview of the Bruderhof during Arnold’s lifetime is provided on pp. 182–85. The chapter situates the Bruderhof alongside other Christian communities in England at the time, and the rest of the book looks at other forms of community in the period, providing a comparative context for Bruderhof origins.

Hindley, Marjorie. “‘Unerwünscht’: One of the Lesser Known Confrontations with the National Socialist State, 1933–37.” German History 11:2 (1993): 207-221. Digitized with alternative pagination at: https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/hindley_m_unerwunscht.pdf?la=en.

Marjorie Hindley (née Badham) joined the Bruderhof in England in the late 1930s. In this article, after a brief introduction regarding Arnold and the establishment of the Bruderhof, Hindley attends to the Bruderhof under Nazism, drawing on archival sources and likely supported by her familiarity with stories from eyewitnesses.

Hofheinz, Marco. “‘Franziskus in Kniebundhosen’: Der christliche Pazifismus Eberhard Arnolds als Tatzeugnis gemeinsamen Lebens (1883–1935)” [“Francis in Knee Breeches: The Christian Pacifism of Eberhard Arnold as Material Witness to the Common Life] In Christlich-theologischer Pazifismus im 20. Jahrhundert [Christian-Theological Pacifism in the 20th Century]. Edited by Marco Hofheinz and Frederike van Oorschot. 69–94. Baden-Baden, Germany: Aschendorff, 2016.

A brief biography of Arnold, followed by an analysis of his theology of pacifism. In a final critical section, Hofheinz argues that Arnold’s uncompromising pacifism is needed, alongside groups who believe that Christian participation in government bodies such as the legal system, the military, and the police is warranted.

The article has been translated into English and publication is expected in 2022 or 2023.

Hofheinz, Marco. “‘Selig sind die Friedfertigen’: Die Bergpredigt und der radikale Pazifismus der Täufer und Neutäufer in Geschichte und Gegenwart” [“Blessed are the Peacemakers”: The Sermon on the Mount and the Radical Pacifism of the Anabaptists and Neo-Anabaptists in History and the Present]. Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 31:1 (2018): 245–71.

A few pages on Arnold’s pacifism (pp. 253–58), based on Hofheinz’s earlier article (see above). The article attends to the Anabaptist pursuit of peace in the context of the Sermon on the Mount, looking at Arnold alongside the Schleitheim Confession and John Howard Yoder.

Howlett, David J. “The Bruderhof’s ‘System of Objects’: A Case Study in Material Culture and Christian Praxis, 1920–2001.” Communal Societies 26:2 (2006): 19–41.

Howlett draws on cultural theorist Jean Baudrillard’s concept of a “system of objects,” a world driven by the consumption of commodities, to understand the role of material objects in Bruderhof life. The main focus of the article is on Bruderhof life in the 1990s, though there is some discussion of early history, as well as quotes from Arnold.

Jany, Berit. “Coming Home: The Bruderhof Returns to Germany.” Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies 1:2 (2013): 31–47. https://ideaexchange.uakron.edu/amishstudies/vol1/iss2/4/.

A study of the Bruderhof’s post-war relationships with Germany and attempts to re-establish there. Some reference to Bruderhof history during Arnold’s time.

The article title page has 2019 instead of 2013. This is either a mistake or refers to the date of digitization.

Janzen, Rod. “The Hutterites and the Bruderhof: The Relationship Between an Old Older [sic] Religious Society and a Twentieth-Century Communal Group.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 79:4 (2005): 505–44. https://fpuscholarworks.fresno.edu/handle/11418/580.

Janzen attends to the relationship between the Hutterites and the Bruderhof, who were in communion from 1930–1955 and 1974–1995. The relationship between the two groups during Arnold’s lifetime is explored on pp. 509–12.

Kühnert, Alfred. “Die Neuwerk-Bewegung: Neues Werk mit Pflug und Gebet” [The Neuwerk Movement: New Work with Plow and Prayer]. In Erlittene Geschichte: Bergwinkel-Studien [History Incurred: Bergwinkel Studies]. 226–36. Schlüchtern: Steinfeld, 1980.

A brief outline of the Neuwerk movement and the establishment of the community at Sannerz, followed by an overview of the two groups that arose from the split – the Bruderhof and the community at the Habertshof.

Kupisch, Karl. “Eberhard Arnold: Aus der Personalakte eines Schwärmers” [Eberhard Arnold: From the Personnel Records of an Enthusiast] Die Zeichen der Zeit 19:11 (1965): 421–425.

A brief but detailed biographical article on Arnold. Kupisch draws on his extensive knowledge of the DCSV (German student Christian movement; see Kupisch under books, above).

Lemhöfer, Lutz. “Eberhard Arnold und die alternativ-christliche Gemeinschaft der Bruderhöfe” [Eberhard Arnold and the Alternative-Christian Community of the Bruderhofs] Zeitschrift für Religions- und Weltanschauungsfragen 66:9 (2003): 341–47. https://ezw-berlin.de/html/15_356.php.

A brief treatment of Arnold and Bruderhof history.

Lichti, James Irvin. “German Mennonites, Economics and the State.” In Anabaptist/Mennonite Faith and Economics. Edited by Calvin Redekop, Victor A. Krahn, and Samuel J. Steiner. 83–110. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994.

Moore, Charles E. “Radical, Communal, Bearing Witness: The Church as God’s Mission in Bruderhof Perspective and Practice.” Missio Dei: A Journal of Missional Theology and Praxis 9:2 (2018). http://missiodeijournal.com/issues/md-9-2/authors/md-9-2-moore.

Charles Moore is a member of the Bruderhof. A few paragraphs summarize Bruderhof history.

Nauerth, Thomas. “‘Alles Gute für Hitler’: Der Rhönbruderhof und das Problem der Obrigkeit nach 1933” [“Best Wishes for Hitler”: The Rhön Bruderhof and the Problem of Political Authority after 1933]. Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 30:1 (2017): 62–74.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. In this article, he takes this greeting, “Best wishes for Hitler,” as his starting point. The words appear in a letter addressed to Hitler by Arnold together with other Bruderhof members. The rest of the article explores the Bruderhof’s unique relationships with political authority during this time.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Bergpredigt und Widerstand: Die Bruderhofgemeinschaft 1933–1937” [The Sermon on the Mount and Resistance: The Bruderhof Community 1933–1937]. Paper presented at “Bergpredigt leben” [Living the Sermon on the Mount] conference, Fulda, Germany, November 2015. PDF: https://www.academia.edu/27646454/Bergpredigt_und_Widerstand_Die_Bruderhofgemeinschaft_1933_1937.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. This brief but detailed overview of the period attends to the role of the Sermon on the Mount in Bruderhof practice at this time.

YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAXn-GY9Gi4&ab_channel=Bruderhof. Cf.: https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/early-christians/conference-on-the-sermon-on-the-mount-in-fulda-germany.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Das große Erwachen: der erste Weltkrieg als pazifistische Lebenswende” [The Great Awakening: The First World War as a Pacifist Turning Point]. In Frieden im Niemandsland: Die Minderheit der christlichen Botschafter im Ersten Weltkrieg [Peace in No-Man’s-Land: The Minority of Christian Ambassadors in the First World War]. Edited by Peter Bürger. 211–26. Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand, 2021.

Nauerth, Thomas. “Michael Horsch and the Rhön Bruderhof, 1936–1937: From Friend to Hostile Witness to Historical Eyewitness.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 91:2 (2017): 213–46.

Thomas Nauerth has written widely on the Bruderhof under Nazism. In this article, he attends to the relationship between Mennonite Michael Horsch and the Bruderhof. Initially a “dedicated friend” of the Bruderhof, Horsch later justified the Nazi dissolution of the Rhön Bruderhof on the basis of the community’s alleged agricultural mismanagement and laziness. While the events addressed in this article take place not long after Arnold’s death, the text is nonetheless an important study of Bruderhof life in Germany that speaks to his legacy.

A response article disputes some of Nauerth’s analysis: Horsch, Volker. “Michael Horsch: A Victim of His Nationalist Sympathies? A Response to Thomas Nauerth.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 92:2 (2018): 299–305. An original, non-abridged German version is mentioned, but we have been unable to locate this.

Neima, Anna. “Seeking the Kingdom of God in Rural Germany: Eberhard and Emmy Arnold’s Bruderhof.” In The Utopians: Six Attempts to Build the Perfect Society. 163–99. London: Picador, 2021.

A chapter on the origins and history of the Bruderhof, in the context of other groups throughout the world seeking community after WWI. The book was reviewed for Plough here: https://www.plough.com/en/topics/culture/literature/editors-picks-the-utopians.

Randall, Ian M. “An Anabaptist Witness: The Bruderhof Community.” Anabaptism Today 3:1 (2021): 22–35. https://anabaptismtoday.co.uk/index.php/home/article/view/151.

Provides a brief account of Arnold and Bruderhof history, though the main focus of the article is on the Bruderhof in England, a period not long after Arnold’s death.

Originally published in: Baptistic Theologies 9:2 (2017): 19–36.

Schibilsky, Michael. “Bürgerliche Jugendbewegung: Innovation oder Regression” [Bourgeois Youth Movement: Innovation or Regression]. Recht der Jugend und des Bildungswesens [Law of Youth and Education] 23:1 (1975): 11–21.

A discussion of the beginnings of the Neuwerk movement, the establishment of Sannerz, and the splintering of the movement into three different groups – Arnold’s group remained at Sannerz and was the precursor to the Bruderhof movement.

Spielhagen, Frances R. and Bruce S. Cooper. “Christian Community in Action: Bruderhof Schools.” Journal of Research on Christian Education 16:1 (2007): 65–81.

An overview of Bruderhof education, with some reference to Arnold and early Bruderhof history.

Spielhagen, Frances R. and Bruce S. Cooper. “Forming Social Capital: The Bruderhof Schools.” The Journal of Education 183:2 (2002): 49–62.

An overview of Bruderhof education, with scattered references to Arnold throughout.

Tyldesley, Mike. “Gustav Landauer and the Bruderhof Communities.” Communal Societies 16 (1996): 23-41. https://communalstudies.org/product/communal-societies-vol-16-1996/.

This article provides a reasonably detailed overview of the work of anarchist Gustav Landauer and his importance in Bruderhof history, especially in Arnold’s thought.

Tyldesley, Mike. “Martin Buber and the Bruderhof Communities.” Journal of Jewish Studies 45:2 (1994): 258–272.

This article explores the relationship between Martin Buber and the Bruderhof communities in Arnold’s lifetime, as well as contact in later periods. It attends to correspondence, Arnold’s article on Buber, and the possibility of mutual intellectual influence.

Wright, Melanie J. “The Nature and Significance of Relations between the Historic Peace Churches and Jews during and after the Shoah.” In Christian-Jewish Relations through the Centuries. Edited by Stanley E. Porter and Brook W. R. Pearson. 400–425. London: Continuum, 2000.

An overview of relationships between historic peace churches (here: Quakers, Mennonites, and Hutterites, i.e., the Bruderhof) and Jews during and after Nazi persecution (the Shoah). The section on the Bruderhof during Arnold’s time is brief and not overly detailed but nonetheless informative (pp. 412–15).

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Encyclopedia Articles

Arnold, E. C. H. (Hardy). “Alm Bruderhof (Liechtenstein).” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. https://gameo.org/index.php?title=Alm_Bruderhof_(Liechtenstein).

Adapted from the original: “Almbruderhof.” In The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Volume 1. A–C. 64. Edited by Harold S. Bender and C. Henry Smith. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1955. https://archive.org/details/mennoniteencyclo0001unse.

Arnold, E. C. H (Hardy). “Arnold, Eberhard (1883–1935).” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. https://gameo.org/index.php?title=Arnold,_Eberhard_(1883-1935).

Originally: “Eberhard Arnold, 1883–1939 [sic.]: A Short Biography.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 25:3 (1951): 219–21 [Arnold died in 1935]. Slightly revised reprint: “Arnold, Eberhard.” The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Volume 1. A–C. 162–64. Edited by Harold S. Bender and C. Henry Smith. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1955. https://archive.org/details/mennoniteencyclo0001unse.

Arnold, E. C. H (Hardy). “Rhön Bruderhof (Hessen, Germany).” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. https://gameo.org/index.php?title=Rh%C3%B6n_Bruderhof_(Hessen,_Germany).

Adapted from the original: “Rhönbruderhof.” In The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Volume 4. O–Z, Supplement. 322–23. Edited by Harold S. Bender and C. Henry Smith. Scottdale, PA: Mennonite Publishing House, 1959.

Arnold, Heini. “Arnold, Eberhard, 1883­–1935.” In The Brethren Encyclopedia. Volume 1. A–J. 56. Edited by Donald Durnbaugh. Philadelphia, PA: Brethren Encyclopedia, 1983. https://archive.org/details/brethrenencyclop0001unse.

Baum, Markus. “Eberhard Arnold.” In Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon [Biographical-Bibliographical Church Encyclopedia]. Vol. 19. Nordhausen, Germany: Bautz, 2001.

“Der Bruderhof.” Widerstand!? Evangelische Christinnen und Christen im Nationalsozialismus [Resistance!? Protestant Christians under National Socialism]. https://de.evangelischer-widerstand.de/#/menschen/Bruderhof.

Much of the website is also available in English. At the time of publishing this bibliography, the area on the Bruderhof was still only available in German.

Dunkel, Daniela. “Arnold, Eberhard.” Religion Past and Present: Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion. Edited by Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning, Bernd Janowski, and Eberhard Jüngel. Vol. 1. A–Bhu. 395. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

Hilbe, Herbert. “Almbruderhof.” Last updated 31 December 2011. In Historisches Lexikon des Fürstentums Liechtenstein [Historical Encyclopedia of the Principality of Liechtenstein] (online). https://historisches-lexikon.li/Almbruderhof.

Print: “Almbruderhof.” In Historisches Lexikon des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. Edited by Arthur Brunhart. Vol. 1. A bis L. 13. Zurich: Chronos, 2013.

Hillerbrand, Hans J. “Arnold, Eberhard (1883–1935).” The Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Edited by Hans J. Hillerbrand. Vol. 1. A–C. 170–71. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Kautz, Heinrich. “Arnold, Eberhard.” In Neue Deutsche Biographie [New German Biography]. Volume 1. Aachen–Behaim. 384–85. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1953. https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/gnd118504231.html.

Lichti, James Irvin. “Rhönbruderhof.” Last updated 23 May 2020. Mennonitisches Lexikon (MennLex) [Mennonite Encyclopedia]. http://mennlex.de/doku.php?id=top:rhoenbruderhof.

Maendel, Emmy. “Bruderhof Communities.” Last updated August 2017. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. https://gameo.org/index.php?title=Bruderhof_Communities.

The much shorter, original print version has been digitized and included at the same address.

Melton, J. Gordon. “Arnold, Eberhard.” In Biographical Dictionary of American Cult and Sect Leaders. 12–14. New York: Garland, 1986. https://archive.org/details/biographicaldict00jgor.

Pfeiffer, Arnold. “Religiöse Sozialisten” [Religious Socialists]. In Handbuch der deutschen Reformbewegungen 1880–1933 [Handbook of German Reform Movements, 1880–1933]. Edited by Diethart Kerbs and Jürgen Reulecke. 523–36. Wuppertal: Hammer 1998.

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Comments

Cort, John C. Christian Socialism: An Informal History. Second edition. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2020.

Cort quotes a conversation he had with Hans Meier on Arnold’s response to Barth’s address at the Tambach conference:

“As Eberhard Arnold said to the religious socialists at Tambach in 1919, responding to the discouragements of Barth, ‘Karl Barth is right. Human action goes nowhere. But if God tells us to do something, is that just human action?’” (p. 356).

Eller, Vernard. Christian Anarchy: Jesus' Primacy over the Powers. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987. Digitized, unpaginated version: http://www.hccentral.com/eller12/index.html.

Eller comments on the significance of Arnold for Christian anarchism:

“Barth's relationship to Religious Socialism came to a head when, in 1919, at Tambach, Germany, he addressed a conference of about a hundred religious-socialist leaders from Germany and Switzerland. The formal response to Barth's paper was made by one Eberhard Arnold, who observed that the lecture was ‘a rather complicated kind of machine that runs backwards and forwards and shoots in all directions with no lack of both visible and hidden joints’ (Busch, p. 110). [This quote is from Barth himself and wrongly attributed to Arnold due to a misreading of Busch.]

“(Arnold could have been prophetic if had only gone on to say: ‘--which is just how an engine of Christian Anarchy should operate.’ Eberhard Arnold was himself within a year or so of founding that Christian community which has survived to the present day as the ‘Bruderhof’ movement. In examining Arnold's own thought in the recently published anthology of his works--God's Revolution [Paulist Press, 1984]--it becomes apparent that he is Blumhardtian enough that any Christian Anarchy ascribed to Blumhardt would have to apply to Arnold as well. Yet it is Arnold who may take the prize as the very first person to use the term "anarchism" according to the exact definition and with the exact application we intend now. In the Introduction and Survey to his 1926 sourcebook--The Early Christians [Baker, 1979]--he wrote: ‘At the same time, it was within the Church that monasticism once again achieved that radical “anarchism” of faith responsible to God alone which had been alive in the beginning’ [pp.52-53])” (p. 112).

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Databases

eLiechtensteinensia. https://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/viewer/index/.

Provides free access to thousands of full-text, searchable image scans relating to the country of Liechtenstein. The majority of material mentioning Eberhard Arnold and/or the Bruderhof is dated between 1934 and 1938, and mostly appears in newspapers.

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Forewords and Introductions

The majority of published primary sources contain forewords and/or introductions relating to Arnold’s life and thought. While most of the following are purely introductory in nature, some of them include insights or details that may be of interest to researchers, especially when written by or in conversation with Bruderhof members.

Arnold, Hardy. “Introduction.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold. Seeking for the Kingdom of God: Origins of the Bruderhof Communities. Edited by Heini and Annemarie Arnold. ix–xxi. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. https://archive.org/details/seekingforkingdo0000arno.

Arnold, Hardy. “Postscript.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold. Seeking for the Kingdom of God: Origins of the Bruderhof Communities. Edited by Heini and Annemarie Arnold. 273–84. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1974. https://archive.org/details/seekingforkingdo0000arno.

Arnold, Heini. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Talks and Writings on the Sermon on the Mount. xi–xviii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1986. https://archive.org/details/saltlighttalkswr0000arno_l2l5.

German: “Einführung.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salz und Licht: Über die Bergpredigt. 11–15. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1982. https://archive.org/details/salzundlichtberd0000arno.

Arnold, Johann Christoph. “Introduction.” In Johann Christoph Arnold, ed. Eberhard Arnold: Writings Selected. 7–31. Modern Spiritual Masters. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011.

Originally: Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2000.

Dahlke, H. Otto. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. v–vi. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. https://archive.org/details/individualworldn0000arno.

Domer, Richard E. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Talks and Writings on the Sermon on the Mount. vii–xix. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1967. https://archive.org/details/saltlighttalkswr0000arno.

Farina, John. “Preface: Twentieth Century Apocalyptic.” In Eberhard Arnold, War: A Call to the Inner Land. 1–8. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 1987. https://archive.org/details/warcalltoinnerla0000arno.

Gross, Leonard. “Reclaiming the Hutterian Vision.” In Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. xv–xviii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. https://archive.org/details/brothersuniteacc0000arno.

Hauerwas, Stanley. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, God’s Revolution: Justice, Community, and the Coming Kingdom. vii–xiii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2021. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/gods-revolution.

Hildel, Winifred and Miriam Mathis. “Foreword.” In Children's Education in Community: The Basis of Bruderhof Education. Edited and translated by Winifred Hildel and Miriam Mathis. ix–xi. Walden, NY: Plough, 2017. Available for purchase here: https://www.plough.com/en/topics/community/childrens-education-in-community.

Hostetler, John A. “Introduction.” In Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. ix–xiv. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. https://archive.org/details/brothersuniteacc0000arno.

Hutterian Brethren. “Editors’ Preface.” In Hutterian Brethren, ed. Brothers Unite: An Account of the Uniting of Eberhard Arnold and the Rhön Bruderhof with the Hutterian Church; Based on the Diary of His Journey to North America 1930–31 and Letters Written between 1928 and 1935. vii–viii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1988. https://archive.org/details/brothersuniteacc0000arno.

Moltmann, Jürgen. “Foreword.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Living the Sermon on the Mount. ix–xii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/bible-studies/salt-and-light.

Print: 1998. https://archive.org/details/saltlightlivings0000arno. German: “Vorwort.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salz und Licht: Über die Bergpredigt. 7–9. Moers, Germany: Brendow, 1982. https://archive.org/details/salzundlichtberd0000arno.

Moody, Doug. “Foreword.” In Eberhard Arnold, Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart and Soul of the Bible. ix–xiv. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1976.

Moody, Douglas A. “Preface to the English Edition.” In Eberhard Arnold, ed. The Early Christians: After the Death of the Apostles. ix–xii. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1970. https://archive.org/details/earlychristiansa0000unse.

Pennington, Basil. “Foreword.” In Eberhard Arnold and Thomas Merton, Why We Live in Community. ix–xv. Walden, NY: Plough, 2017. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/community/communal-living/why-we-live-in-community.

Earlier edition: Farmington, PA: Plough, 1995. https://archive.org/details/whyweliveincommu0000arno.

Perkins, Spencer and Chris Rice. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. vii–xi. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. https://archive.org/details/individualworldn0000arno.

Pfeiffer, Arnold. “Eberhard Arnold und der Weg des Bruderhof-Lebens” (Einführung) [Eberhard Arnold and the Bruderhof Way of Life (Introduction)]. In Arnold Pfeiffer, ed. Religiöse Sozialisten. 201–12. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Walter, 1976.

Plough. “Background.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold, Love Letters. 1–12. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/life/marriage/love-letters.

Plough. “Epilogue.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. 73–75. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/justice/social-justice/individual-and-world-need.

Adapted from the epilogue in: Eberhard Arnold, The Individual and World Need. 69–72. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1992. https://archive.org/details/individualworldn0000arno.

Plough. “Epilogue.” In Eberhard and Emmy Arnold, Love Letters. 293–301. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/life/marriage/love-letters.

Plough. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Poems and Rhymed Prayers. 3–4. Rifton, NY: Plough, 2011. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/culture/poetry/poems-and-rhymed-prayers.

Originally in published on pp. ix–xiii of the 2003 edition. https://archive.org/details/poemsrhymedpraye0000arno.

Plough. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, Salt and Light: Living the Sermon on the Mount. xiii–xix. Walden, NY: Plough, 2014. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/bible-studies/salt-and-light.

Print: 1998. https://archive.org/details/saltlightlivings0000arno.

Plough. “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, The Early Anabaptists. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1984. https://archive.org/details/earlyanabaptists0000arno.

Adapted from: “Introduction.” In Eberhard Arnold, “On the History of the Baptizer Movement in Reformation Times.” Mennonite Quarterly Review 43:3 (1969): 213–233, at 213–14.

Plough. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel. vii–viii. Farmington, PA: Plough, 1999. https://archive.org/details/innerlandguidein0000arno.

Plough. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, Inner Land: A Guide into the Heart of the Gospel. Volume 1. The Inner Life. xi–xiii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2019. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/inner-life.

The same preface is included in all five volumes of Inner Land. https://www.plough.com/en/books/inner-land.

Plough. “Preface.” In Eberhard Arnold, ed. The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. vii–viii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2015. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/early-christians/early-christians.

Wiser, Arthur. “Introduction.” In Love and Marriage in the Spirit: Talks and Writings by Eberhard Arnold. ix–xviii. Edited by the Society of Brothers. Rifton, NY: Plough, 1965. https://archive.org/details/lovemarriageinsp0000arno.

Yoder, John Howard. “Eberhard Arnold and His Times.” In Eberhard Arnold, God’s Revolution: Justice, Community, and the Coming Kingdom. xv–xxxii. Walden, NY: Plough, 2021. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/discipleship/gods-revolution.

Original: “Introduction.” In God’s Revolution: The Witness of Eberhard Arnold. Edited by the Hutterian Society of Brothers and John Howard Yoder. 5–22. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist, 1984. https://archive.org/details/godsrevolutionwi00arno.

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Popular-Level Literature

Ellsberg, Robert. “Eberhard Arnold, Founder of the Bruderhof (1883-1935).” In All Saints: Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses for Our Time. 508­–510. New York: Crossroad, 1997. https://archive.org/details/allsaintsdailyre00ells.

Foster, Richard J. “The Perpetual Flame of Devotion.” In Eberhard Arnold and Richard J. Foster. The Prayer God Answers. Translated by Eileen Robertshaw et al. 43–69. Walden, NY: Plough, 2016. https://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/prayer/prayer-god-answers.

Kieber, Georg. Silum: Für die Alpgenossenschaft Silum zur Einsegnung des St. Wendelin Bildstöckles am 22. September 1991 [Silum: For the Alpgenossenschaft Silum [Silum Alpine Cooperative], on the Occasion of the Blessing of the St. Wendelin Wayside Shrine on September 22, 1991]. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: Alpgenossenschaft Silum, 1991.

Note: Includes a page on the Alm Bruderhof.

Moore, Charles E. “‘Our Garden Must Be God’s Garden’: The Bruderhof Sought a Life in Harmony with God and Nature.” Christian History 119 (2016): 34–36. https://christianhistoryinstitute.org/magazine/issue/creation-care.

Satlow, Bernt. “Zeugnis und Zeichen für die kommende Herrschaft Gottes: Nachträglich zu Eberhard Arnolds 100. Geburtstag” [Witness and Sign for the Coming Reign of God: Belated Wishes for Eberhard Arnold’s 100th Birthday] Standpunkt 11:11 (1983): 291–292.

Susman, Margarete. “Eberhard Arnold.” Translated by Kathleen Hasenberg. Bruderhof website. https://www.bruderhof.com/-/media/files/bruderhof/new-resources-2019/bruderhof-history/susman_m_1957.pdf?la=en.

Original German in: Neue Wege: Blätter für den Kampf der Zeit [New Ways: Journal for the Struggle of the Time] 51:8 (1957): 230–35. https://www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?pid=new-001%3A1957%3A51%3A%3A471.

Walters, Kerry, and Robin Jarrell. “Eberhard Arnold.” In Blessed Peacemakers: 365 Extraordinary People Who Changed the World. 207. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2013.

Warren, Coretta. “Fight or Flight.” Voices: A Blog from the Bruderhof. 4 December 2015. https://www.bruderhof.com/en/voices-blog/justice/fight-or-flight.

Zimmerman, Chris. “In Remembrance: Eberhard Arnold.” Voices: A Blog from the Bruderhof. 21 November 2015. https://www.bruderhof.com/en/voices-blog/life-in-community/in-remembrance-eberhard-arnold.

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